Category Archives: Lifestyle, Society, Culture & Politics

Free Basics – Why You Shouldn’t Support It!

There’s a lot of buzz going around ‘Free Basics’ – A platform that Facebook is trying to get it launched full-fledged in India. But what exactly is Free Basics? Does it really mean that Indians will now have access to basic Internet for free? Let’s find that out in detail. Whether the claims are too good to be true or it’s just another scam that can prove to be really disastrous in future!

Why ‘Internet.org’ was renamed to ‘Free Basics’?

About a year ago, when Internet.org was launched in India, countless netizens protested as it was against net neutrality. Shocked by this response, the marketing department of Facebook renamed it to ‘Free Basics’ and re-launched it here as they thought Indians would never say ‘no’ to anything that says ‘free’. Facebook has been aggressively marketing to get it accepted by India’s Telecom regulator. Right from publishing full page newspaper ads, roadside banners and online ads, they have also started sending constant notifications to all their Indian Users to click a button which will direct an email to TRAI saying that you support ‘Free Basics’. They ‘accidentally’ sent these notifications to foreign users as well. And, if you do not accept their pesky notifications, they make you feel guilty for not supporting ‘digital equality’ by showing the list of your friends who support it. By the look of these ads, it seems like Facebook is doing a huge favor for India through ‘Free Basics’ and our government is acting all evil trying to put a stop to their good efforts. But is that so?

What is Free Basics?

Free Basics is a platform given by Facebook in association with telecom operators, where certain basic internet websites will be available free of cost. This means, if you are visiting Facebook or its partner websites, you don’t have to pay internet charges at all. However, if you are visiting other websites such as Google, you need to pay data charges as you have been doing all this while. In India, Facebook has tied up with Reliance to make certain websites free of cost. However, while Facebook claimed that the initiative would allow people who cannot afford the Internet to get access to ‘information’ and connect with the world, a number of people and organizations have been opposing it. And this is because ‘Free Basics’ does not mean free access to the whole of Internet.

What is Net Neutrality?

Net Neutrality is the principle that Internet service providers and governments should treat all data on the Internet the same, not discriminating or charging differently by user, content, site, platform, application, type of attached equipment, or mode of communication. It is one of the fundamental principle due to which Internet exists in the form we see today. Source: Net neutrality- Wikipedia

Internet Access v/s Services on the Internet

Google is a service and so is “Internet access” – and if many of you are using Google service for free – then there is no point in fighting or debating for “Internet access” which is also a service. Google service also requires infrastructure and Internet Access also requires infrastructure – it depends on the business model of the companies on how they generate revenue.  Internet is an open protocol and there is difference between protocols and infrastructures. What we pay for is “Internet access” because that requires a lot of infrastructure and we pay rent for using that infrastructure. Gmail or Facebook are services but not the internet. Internet is collection of those services from which the user should be allowed to choose what he/she likes.

What does Reliance gain from this?

Here’s the deal. You have two options to access Facebook: (1) You can choose Reliance network, and access it for free; or (2) You can choose other telecom operators and pay for the same service. What will you do? It is obvious that people would prefer to go for Reliance. However, once you register on the Reliance network, you realize that actually you need more than just the websites available on Free Basics. Free Basics does not have Google, YouTube, Amazon, Flipkart, Yahoo, LinkedIn,Twitter, Snapdeal, HDFC, ICICI, PayTM, eBay, IRCTC, NDTV, Rediff, Quora, Quikr, RedBus, BSE/NSE and the list goes on. The basics of Indian internet is not on Free “Basics” and you will soon realize, (Click on the image below) that it offers nothing significant, and you will anyway need to pay for the other services.

websites freebasics

When these people, who are now interested in internet, get converted to full payment service, then Reliance becomes their obvious choice. Therefore, telecom operators gain from Free Basics because it increases their subscribers.

What happens if other Telecom Operators join?

We now know Reliance is interested in Free Basics as it gives them an edge over other telecom providers. However, what if other telecom operators also join in? Imagine if all the major telecom operators in India such as Idea, Airtel, Vodafone etc. join the Free Basics platform, what happens then? Reliance will not have any inherent advantage and in that sense, all the websites listed above will be available for free on all the networks. In that case, these telecom operators will gain nothing and will all be just killing themselves? The fact is that these telecom operators are interested in this initiative because it gives them more subscribers. It increases the size of the market as a whole. A lot of people from rural India who have never used internet on their mobile phones will now start using internet. In this whole initiative, the telecom operators will eventually win, because their subscriber base will go up. You may argue that they are not charging for it (because it is free basics). But this argument is foolish because you and I both appreciate that the websites offered by Free Basics are not even basics. They are not offering useful websites like Khan Academy or Amazon or Quora or even Google for that matter. Therefore, anyone who subscribes to Free Basics will eventually want to shift to the full version of internet.

Why is Free Basics a problem?

One thing we must understand is that internet has always been free, fair and democratic in terms of access of information and usage. But today with the dawn of Free Basics, this space is under threat. Even though we do not discuss or see it around us, the World Wide Web dictates our present and future in a manner more real than we can imagine. The ones who are joining the internet today or in the future should be able to use the internet without any restriction, just the way it is meant to be. The issue here is that Facebook’s Free Basics app offers some Internet services (like Facebook) for free, but doesn’t offer the entire Internet for free. This violates net neutrality, the concept that all content online should be treated equally.

Plus no competitor of Facebook would use free basics for obvious reasons. We must never forget that it’s a public company. Even if Marks intentions are good, in difficult times they would use everything they have like targeted ads, big data and many more. Facebook at present sells your data to NSA (source) and this is a security issue for India. So you can anticipate what they can do in future. But the major problem is the ecosystem which is what they are trying to create over the coming years.

Today, there are nearly 1 billion websites and if we consider that there are 3.5 billion users of the Internet, 1 (which could be you) out of every 3.5 such users also offer content or services. The reason that the Internet has become such an influential force for change in such a short period of time is precisely because anybody can connect to anyone, anywhere in the world, not only to receive, but also to provide content or service. This gives both sides equal access to the Internet. But unfortunately, all this would stop if the Internet Service Providers (ISPs) or telecom companies (Telcos) are given the right to act as gatekeepers.

No ISP or Telco can decide what part of the Internet or which websites we can access. Tim Wu, the father of net neutrality, has written that keeping the two sides of the Internet free of gatekeepers is what has given a huge incentive for generating innovation and creating content. This is what has made the Internet, as a platform, so different from other mass communications platforms such as radio and television. Essentially, it has unleashed the creativity of the masses; and it is this creativity we see in the hundreds of millions of active websites. Facebook’s ads and Mark Zuckerberg’s advertorials talk about education, health and other services being provided by Free Basics, without telling us how on earth are we going to access education or doctors and medicines through the Internet? It forgets that while English is spoken by only about 12 per cent of the world’s population, 53 per cent of the Internet’s content is English. If Indians need to access education or health services, they need to access it in their own languages and not in English. No education can succeed without teachers. The Internet is not a substitute for schools and colleges but only complements and that too if the material exists in the languages understandable by the students. Similarly, health demands clinics, hospitals and doctors and not just a few websites on a private Facebook platform.

The danger of privileging Free Basics over a public Internet is that it initiates a new kind of digital divide among the people. A large fraction of people who join Free Basics may come to believe that Facebook is indeed ‘The Internet’. Just the way the British Empire was based on the control of the seas, whoever controls the vast oceans of data today, controls the global economy.

Net neutrality is not an obscure subject which concerns only a few netizens. It is fundamental to the world, in which the Internet is a fountainhead of knowledge, a platform for communication and an artery of commerce. The one who wheels access to the Internet will control our future ultimately. This is what the current battle over Facebook’s Free Basics is all about.

Why hasn’t Free Basics launched in the US or other major economies?

This scam has been pushed through these poor, mostly helpless African nations who have no experience of anything better and who have no ‘activists’ like us who tell their governments they’re raising a generation of deprived children with no access to the real internet. The more online-progressive countries like Japan, Norway, Finland, Estonia and Netherlands have banned programs such as Free Basics. With over 12 lakh emails to TRAI last year, we worked our way towards a ban for it in India too – but Facebook has since spent a large amount of cash in ads, lobbying, diplomacy and PR to try to get it unbanned here. They’ve managed to re-open a closed issue, again. And now we need to re-shut Free Basics.  This program, call it digital apartheid if you will, has been roundly condemned by experts ranging from Tim Berners-Lee, the gentleman who invented the world-wide web, to Ph. D. researchers to civil society officials working in the field, globally. Just because countries like South Africa did not know how to say no to Facebook doesn’t mean India has to say yes. In fact, India saying no to this digital apartheid should hopefully inspire the African and other poor nations to kick out this evil program that serves no one but Facebook at their government’s expense. The issue in India is big, not only because it is home to Facebook’s second-biggest user base outside the U.S., but because whatever happens in India will likely set a precedent in other important countries, like Indonesia and Brazil.

Click on the image below for the list of countries where Free Basics has been launched.

FREEBASICS COUNTRIES 3

FREEBASICS COUNTRIES 2

FREEBASICS COUNTRIES 1

In the US, Facebook is strongly on the side of net neutrality – but in the developing and undeveloped world, they speak from the other side of their mouth, blatantly seeking to violate net neutrality and to give our citizens here a second-rate online experience that they wouldn’t even dream of offering people in their home country.  There are almost 50 million unconnected people in the US. Why haven’t Facebook tried offering them this shoddy program and see how the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) responds to them? We Indians do not need a “bridge” to the full internet, when we can have the full internet itself. The “bridge” is a fancy invention by Facebook to refer to a holding area where Facebook holds, numbers and tracks people before they pay up and wander off into the real internet. Study after study has shown that the poor and the less fortunate in undeveloped nations vastly prefer limited access to the full internet (for example a data limit or a speed limit) rather than full access to a few limited sites – like the one ‘Facebook Free Basics’ offers. They want the freedom of choice. Why hasn’t Facebook chosen the other, proven options to bring people to the internet that do not violate Net Neutrality?

Is Facebook doing this as charity?

Forget their lies about “wanting to connect India” – if they really did, they would offer the open and full internet to everybody for free. The real reason is something they have never denied: their rivalry with Google and their questionable stock price. Both companies have 1.5 billion users, but Google makes Rs. 70,000 crores while Facebook does less than one-fifth as well. In other words, for every new user that comes on the internet, Facebook makes Rs. 8, while Google makes around Rs. 48. Facebook’s stock is valued at a much higher multiple than Google. With no reason to support the extreme price, it will fall. For Facebook to keep their stock price high, and to keep Zuckerberg and wife as rich as they are, they need to find new users who sign up for Facebook, but at the same time do not use Google. Thus a strategy via this program was planned out to offer Facebook but not Google at the mass, poor people level. Who is outside the first 1.5 billion people? It’s mostly people in India and China. But since Facebook is banned in China, the essential to Mark Zuckerberg’s balance sheet becomes us, Indians! Hundreds of crores of ad spend, against tens of thousands of crores of valuation is just nothing!

The internet market growth is getting saturated in the western world as most people are already using internet. India and other Asian countries have a large untapped population who are yet to use internet. Facebook wants to acquire these users by any means possible. One easy way to make Facebook popular among these users is to give it for free. Do you know how drug-agents get college students addicted to their drugs? They first give it for completely free. Then once the students get addicted to it, they start charging them heftily. Free basics is launched for Facebook’s best interests. Otherwise why are they so pushy about this and investing millions for the ad campaign itself, when people are clearly protesting against it? Reliance – the official network partner of Free basics advertises it as ‘Free Facebook’ on newspapers (Source)

Who will get affected?

There are many other reasons why Facebook’s Free Basics Digital Apartheid is bad. We need to get this fact across to people that Free Basics is not offering anyone internet but only sponsored content. We must understand that internet will stand true to its name only if it gives equal opportunities to all the people. If Free Basics starts operating full-fledged, it will be unfair because those websites will now have more viewers than others. And in this way, the other websites will suffer. And the very premise on which internet flourished, will be destroyed. Why is a company like Flipkart able to compete with Amazon today. This is because they have an equal platform called the internet. Today, they are competing only on the basis of their services. This is a healthy competition and it is beneficial for everyone. Startups like Ola are able to efficiently compete with established taxi companies such as Uber. Just imagine what would have happened if Ola did not have an equal opportunity? What would have happened if Uber was available for free and not Ola? Internet is giving an equal opportunity to a number of people because all of them can reach so many users at the same time. This is the magic of the internet. Therefore, with the advent of internet, people are able to genuinely compete only on the basis of services that they offer. Free Basics is going to destroy that. This model will give some companies an edge over the others and will therefore discourage other innovative ideas.

It’s bad for entrepreneurs – your business can’t be discovered by these new potential users on the Internet until you advertise on Facebook. The same goes for big businesses. If a lot of people switch to free internet and Free Basics – then paid-subscribers can be hurt big time. Suppose you start a website that caters to the weather forecast requirements of farmers. With the help of Free Basics, a lot of farmers are able to use internet. However, they cannot access your application because your website is not available in the Free Basics platform. On the other hand, assume a farmer wants to buy a television set for his family. He has an option of buying from A or B. However, he can only access A, because other websites like B are not available for free. Maybe, he ends up paying more for that TV set. The issue with Free Basics is that, it is controlling the content available for the subscribers of internet. Therefore, your website will not be able to reach a lot of subscribers just because you don’t have a tie up with Free Basics. This is outright unfair – both to the website owners (such as the person who works hard to create a useful website for farmers) and also the subscribers (such as the farmer who doesn’t even know that he can have better facilities on other websites). This is against the principle of net neutrality. This is applicable to urban India/metros where the mobile internet is exhausted. Having understood the scenario pretty well, Facebook can slowly take control of the internet by arm-twisting all telecoms into being the sole provider of free internet bundle.

Facebook or Whatsapp wasn’t a basic internet service 10 years ago. If some other company X had offered their service free from past 15 years then Facebook/ Whatsapp wouldn’t have even existed. The things which may look basic now may not be basic in the next 10 years. By giving Facebook control of which apps to give for free, we are creating a monopoly. New startups won’t be able to compete as everyone will use the Facebook’s free alternative. For example:- If free basics was launched in 2010, then Whatsapp would never have been so popular as ‘Facebook Messenger’ would have been free, while you would have to pay data charges to use ‘Whatsapp’ or any other service. This creates a monopolistic environment where only Facebook will thrive.

Have any other telecom companies offered a Zero-Rating platform?

Earlier, Airtel had offered a similar platform called Airtel Zero, using the zero-rating concept. Zero-rating is a practice where internet service providers (ISPs) do not charge customers on data for select applications that they use. Following a public outcry from those who want a free and equal internet, a number of firms, including Flipkart, pulled out of Airtel Zero. Similarly, Cleartrip and NDTV had also pulled out of internet.org. Free Basics operates on the zero-rating principle.

What we really need to get India digitally connected?

There is no denying that a lot of users in India are not connected to the internet, and we know that they would be better off if they were genuinely connected to all the plethora of services that internet can offer them. But this cannot be done by differentiating between some websites over others. Moreover, the power of differentiation cannot be controlled by a single entity (Facebook). This is the case of too much power in the hands of too few people, and this is always disastrous.

While the Free Basics platform has connected only 15 million people in different parts of the world, in India, we have had 60 million people join the Internet using mobiles in the last 12 months alone. And this is in spite of the high cost of mobile data charges. There are 300 million mobile broadband users in the country, an increase fuelled by the falling price of smart phones. In spite of this increase in connectivity, we have another 600 million mobile subscribers who need to be connected to the Internet. Instead of providing Facebook and its few partner websites and calling it “basic” Internet, we need to provide full Internet at prices that people can afford. This is where the regulatory system of the country has to step in. The main barrier to Internet connectivity is the high cost of data services in the country. If we use purchasing power parity as a basis, India has expensive data services compared to most countries. That is the main barrier to Internet penetration. Till now, TRAI has not regulated data tariffs. It is time it addresses the high price of data in the country and not let such prices lead to a completely truncated Internet for the poor. There are various ways of providing free Internet, or cost-effective Internet, to the low-end subscribers. They could be provided some free data with their data connection, or get some free time slots when the traffic on the network is low. 2G data prices can and should be brought down drastically, as the telcos have already made their investments and recovered costs from the subscribers.

Ways Facebook can help without violating Net Neutrality, but they won’t!

There are many, many proven and better ways to get the less fortunate on the Internet – rather than wearing the Facebook Free Basics handcuffs. Schemes such as Gigato offer free data for normal usage of apps. The Mozilla Foundation runs two programs for free and neutral Internet access. Facebook could work with them. Mozilla in partnership with Grameenphone in Bangladesh allows users to receive 20 MB of data usage for free each day, in exchange for viewing an advertisement. In Africa, Orange users get 500 MB of free access on buying a $37 handset. In India, Aircel has begun providing full internet access for free at 64 kbps download speed for the first three months. Facebook could sponsor and expand that. Facebook can give all Indian users free full access to internet upto a certain data limit every month. For instance, 100MB data free for everyone every month without any restrictions. They can give Free internet at low speeds upto a certain data limit. They can also provide ad supported free internet, without restrictions. They could give subsidized data coupons like Rs.10 for first 200MB of the month. Facebook could help lay the infrastructure (cables, routers etc) to connect villages/rural towns. They could offer free unrestricted internet to poor people in selected regions. They can create something like ‘Google Web Light for Slow Internet’ which will reduce the data size of all websites and provide it for free. Facebook can help doing something like these organizations have done, as part of their philanthropic effort.

What is ‘Free basics’/’Internet Dot Org’ according to Facebook?

Free Basics by Facebook provides free access to basic internet services to a billion people all over the world. It makes the internet accessible to more people by providing them access to a range of free basic services like news, maternal health, travel, local jobs, sports, communication, and local government information. To date, we’ve been able to offer these services to a billion people across Asia, Africa and Latin America. By introducing people to the benefits of the internet through these services, we hope to bring more people online and help improve their lives.

That really makes it look so good, right? Who doesn’t want free unlimited internet? You can imagine that a poor kid in a village in central India should be able to see Khan Academy videos, her Dad should be able to look up agricultural spot prices on Google or a commodity exchange and perhaps her Mom could look for a better-paying jobs at a top job board. But no, none of these are a part of the so-called “Free Basics” that Facebook offers the poor. Videos in fact, are not available at all, presumably to conserve bandwidth so it can be retained for more important things like villagers sending each other Candy Crush requests. There is no place these folks can buy, or sell or trade. There’s no Kiva or other bottom-of-pyramid money service. No loans they can receive. No government sites, no banks. No Coursera or EdX or Khan Academy – so it’s not about education either. Forget about entertainment – there’s absolutely none of that. You name any possible site of importance to someone who needs information and opportunities, and it’s not there. But, hey, I guess then you can always poke folks in the next village!

Who is paying for Free Basics?

Telecom operators pay for Free Basics and they get this money from users who pay. By encouraging people to choose Free Basics, Facebook reduces the tendency to bring down data costs for paid Internet access. Free Basics isn’t about bringing people online. It’s about keeping Facebook and its partners free, while everything else remains paid. Users who pay for Internet access can still access Free Basics for free, giving Facebook and its partners an advantage. Internet access is growing rapidly in India. Free Basics is not an open platform. Facebook defines the technical guidelines for Free Basics, and reserves the right to change them. They reserve the right to reject applicants, who are forced to comply with Facebook’s terms. In contrast they support ‘Permissionless Innovation’ in the US. Facebook was criticized in Brazil for misleading advertising (source). Their communication in India is misleading. People find the “Free” part of Free Basics advertising from Facebook from Reliance misleading (source). Facebook says that Free Basics doesn’t have ads, but does not say that it will never have ads on Free Basics.

How Facebook got you to support Free Basics – A sly move!

FREEBASICS FACEBOOK MESSAGE

 

What can you do to stop ‘Free basics’?

They may claim 3.2 million in support, but how many of those mails are legitimate?  Remember this. Internet exists in its current form because of net neutrality. (It is not just a buzz word.) If it wasn’t neutral then you wouldn’t be reading opposing opinions. You can go to Save The Internet! and send an email to TRAI saying you are against this. You can spread this information and ask your friends to also do the same. It is important for the people who know the truth to help others understand it.

Say No To Free Basics! Save The Internet!

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Popular Games & Sports That Originated In Ancient India!

Ancient India had a rich tradition of games that were played and passed on through generations and cultures for not only leisure but also to develop mental capabilities and maintain physical fitness. During ancient times, physical fitness was given prime importance, especially by the kings and the higher-class warriors.

Here is a list of well-known indoor & outdoor games that took birth in the soils of Ancient India, many of which are still actively played throughout the world.

Chess

The game of chess was invented in India and was originally called Ashtapada (sixty-four squares). “Ashtapada” in Sanskrit denotes a spider -“a legendary being with eight legs” and this game was played with a dice on an 8×8 checkered board. 1000 years back, the squares weren’t black and white like we see in the presently used chess board. Other Indian boards included the 10×10 Dasapada and the 9×9 Saturankam. Later this game came to be known as Chaturanga. The Sanskrit name Chaturanga means ‘quadripartite’ — the four Angas (divided into four parts) which symbolize “the 4 branches of the army.” Like real Indian armies at that time, the pieces were called elephants, chariots, horses and foot soldiers. Unlike modern chess, Chaturanga was mainly a game of chance where results depended on how well you rolled the dice. Played on an authentic cloth  by 2, 3 or 4 players, Chaturanga combines the basic strategy of chess with the dynamic challenge of chance as each move is determined by the random roll of a wooden dice. In fact,  in the Mahabharata, Yudhishthira and Duryodhana played a version of Chaturanga using a dice. The game Chaturanga was a battle simulation game which rendered Indian military strategy of the time.

In 600 AD this game was learned by Persians who named it Shatranj. The word ‘checkmate’ is derived from the Persian term Shah-Mat which means ‘The King is Dead!’. The Sanskrit translation of this term would be Kshatra-Mruta. Another term viz. ‘The Rooks’ which is the name for one set of the counters used in chess, originated from the Persian term Roth which means a soldier. The Persian term is derived from the Indian term Rukh, which obviously seems to have originated in the Sanskrit word Rakshak which means a soldier which is again derived from Raksha which means ‘to protect’. About the introduction of this game into Persia, the Encylopedia Britannica says that the Persian poet Firdousi, in his historical poem, the Shahnama, gives an account of the introduction of Shatranj into Persia in the reign of Chosroes I Anushirwan, to whom came ambassadors from the sovereign of Hind (India), with a chess-board with men asking him to solve the secrets of the game. The king asked for seven days grace, during which, the wise men vainly tried to discover the secret. Finally, the king’s minister took the pieces home and discovered the secret in a day and a night’s time. The Encyclopedia Britannica concludes that “Other Persian and Arabian writers state that Shatranj came into Persia from India and there appears to be a consensus of opinion that may be considered to settle the question. Thus we have the game passing from the Hindus to the Persians and then to the Arabians, after the capture of Persia by the Caliphs in the 7th century, and from them, directly or indirectly, to various parts of Europe, at a time which cannot be definitely fixed, but either in or before the 10th century. Tamil variations of Chaturanga are ‘Puliattam’ (Goat and Tiger game), where careful moves on a triangle decide whether the tiger captures the goats or the goats escape;  ‘Nakshatraattam’ (Star game) is the one where each player cuts out the other and the game named ‘Dayakattam’ with four, eight or ten squares, is similar to modern day Ludo. Variations of the ‘dayakattam’ include ‘dayakaram’, the North Indian ‘pachisi’ and ‘champar’ along with many more local variations.

Carrom Board

It is a “strike and pocket” table game of Eastern origin similar to billiards and table shuffleboard. It is found throughout the East under different names, though most non-eastern people know it by the East Asian name of Carrom (or Karrom). Carrom is widely played in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and surrounding areas and in the Middle East as well. In South Asia, many clubs and cafés hold regular tournaments. Carrom is popularly played with families including children, especially at social gatherings. Different standards and rules exist in different areas. The game of carrom is believed to have originated from the Indian subcontinent. Although no concrete evidence is available, it is believed that carrom was invented by the Indian Maharajas. One Carrom Board with its surface made of glass is still available in one of the palaces in Patiala, India. It became very popular among the masses after World War I.

Ludo

Also known as Pachisi, the earliest evidence of this game in India is the depiction of boards on the caves of Ajanta. This game was played by the Mughal Emperors of India; a notable example being that of Akbar. Variations of the game made it to England during the late 19th century. The one which appeared around 1896 under the name of Ludo was successfully patented.

Cards

The popular game of cards originated in ancient India and was known as Krida-Patram.  These cards were made of cloth and depicted motifs from the Ramayana, Mahabharata along with ancient artwork. The tradition is still carried on today with floral motifs and natural scenery.This game was patronized especially by the royal and noble class. In medieval India, playing cards were known as ‘Ganjifa’ cards and were played in practically all royal courts. It is recorded to have been played in Rajputana, Kashyapa Meru (Kashmir), Utkala (Orissa), the Deccan and even in Nepal. The Mughals also patronized this game, but the Mughal card-sets differed from those of the ancient Indian royal courts. According to Abul Fazal’s (Author of the Ain-e-Akbari) description of the game, the following cards were used. The first was Ashvapati which is the ‘lord of horses’. The Ashvapati which was ranked the highest card in the pack, represented the picture of the king on a horseback. The second represented a General (Senapati) on a horseback. After this card came ten other cards with pictures of horses from one to ten. Another set of cards had the Gajapati (lord of elephants) which represented the king whose power lay in the number of elephants. The other eleven cards in this pack represented the Senapati and ten others with a soldier astride an elephant. Another pack had the Narpati, a king whose power lies in his infantry. The other cards  were known as the Dhanpati, the lord of treasures, Dalpati the lord of the squadron, Navapati, the lord of the navy, Surapati, the lord of divinities, Asrapati, the lord of genii, Vanapati, the king of the forest, Ahipati, the lord of snakes and so on. Based on reports by Abul Fazal, we can say that the game of playing cards was invented by sages in ancient times who took the number 12 as the basis and made a set of 12 cards. Every king had 11 followers, thus a pack had 144 cards. The Mughals retained 12 sets, and so they had 96 cards. The Mughal Ganjifa sets have representations of diverse trades like Nakkash painter, Mujallid book binder, Rangrez dyer, etc. In addition to this, there were also the Padishah-i-Qimash, the king of the manufacturers and Padishah-izar-i-Safid, the king of silver, and many more. The pre-Mughal origin of the game of cards is evident if we examine the pattern of painting on the cards. We also find that despite the observation of Abul Fazal that Akbar introduced the pack with 8 sets, we find that even earlier, in Indian (Hindu) courts we have packs with 8, 9 and 10 sets apart from the usual 12. The numbers were derived from the eight cardinal directions Ashtadikpala, for the pack with 8 set; from the nine planets Navagraha for the one with 9 sets and from ten incarnations Dashavatara of Vishnu for the pack with 10 sets.  The largest number of such cards are to be found in Orrisa. The painters from Orissa have represented various illustrations like the Navagunjara, a mythical bird-human animal which was the form assumed by Sri Krishna to test Arjuna’s fidelity.  Illustrations from the Dashavatara of Vishnu are also portrayed.

All these cards were hand-made and were painted traditionally. This required considerable patience and hard meticulous work. The kings usually commissioned painters to make cards as per their preference. The commoners got their cards made by local artists who were found in urban and rural areas. In order to obtain the required thickness, a number of sheets of pieces of cloth were glued together. The outlines of the rim were painted in black and then the figures were filled with colors. As cards were played by members of all strata of the society, we find a variety of cards. Cards were made of ivory, tortoise shell, mother of pearls, inlaid or enameled with precious metals. The circular cards were more common but there were different shapes like oval & rectangular as well. The cards were usually kept in a wooden box with a lid painted with mythological figures. This art of handmade, hand painted cards which survived for hundreds of years, decayed gradually and thus became extinct with the introduction of printed paper cards by the Europeans in the 17-18th centuries. With the extinction of the art of making and painting cards, the memory that Indians played the game of cards with their own specific representations of the Narapati, Gajapati and Ashvapati was forgotten too.

Snakes & Ladders

This game had its origin in India and was known as Moksha Patam, Parama Padam and Mokshapat. It was used to teach Hindu Dharma and Hindu values to children. The British renamed it as Snakes and Ladders. The game was created by the 13th century poet Sant (Saint) Gyandev. The ladders in the game represented virtues and the snakes indicated vices. The game was played with cowrie shells and dices. Later through time, the game underwent several modifications but the meaning remained the same – good deeds take us to heaven & evil takes us through a cycle of re-births. There are certain references which take the game back to the 2nd century BC. In the original game, the squares where the ladders were found were referred as follows – Square 12 was Faith, 51 was Reliability, 57 was Generosity, 76 was Knowledge, and 78 was Asceticism. The squares where snakes were found depicted the vices like Square 41 was for Disobedience, 44 for Arrogance, 49 for Vulgarity, 52 for Theft, 58 for Lying, 62 for Intoxication, 69 for Debt, 84 for Anger, 92 for Greed, 95 for Pride, 73 for Murder and 99 for Lust. Square 100 represented Nirvana or Moksha.

In another version known as ‘Paramapadam’, there are a hundred squares on a board, where the ladders take you up and the snakes bring you down. The difference here is that the squares are illustrated. The top of the ladder depicts a God, or one of the various heavens (Kailasa, Vaikuntha, Brahmaloka) and so on, while the bottom describes good qualities. Conversely, each snake’s head is a negative quality or an asura (demon). As the game progresses, the various karma and samskara, which are the good and bad deeds, take you up and down the board. Interspersed are plants, people and animals. The game serves a dual purpose: entertainment being one and the other being the learning that one gets with regards to the do’s and don’ts of life, divine rewards and punishment, ethical values and morality and so on. The final goal leads to Vaikuntha (heaven) which is depicted by Vishnu who is surrounded by his devotees or Kailasa with Shiva, Parvati, Ganesha and Skanda with their devotees. In the present age of moral and ethical degeneration, this game would prove to be a brilliant way to instill values in children who are way too exposed to the highly influential world. The British took the game to England in 1892, named it Snakes and Ladders and changed it according to Victorian values.

Mancala

If Paramapadam teaches us moral values, Mancala (Pallankuli) develops mental skill and quick thinking. Two players compete on a board consisting between seven to twenty pits per player, where each player has to collect the coins or shells or seeds with which the game is played. The player with the maximum number is declared the winner. There are nine variations of this game, each with regional, caste and religious significance. This game was extremely popular among women and required a good memory and an alert mind since they had to count and remember the number of coins or seeds accumulated by the opponent. This is a traditional mancala game played in South India (especially Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala), Sri Lanka and Malaysia. This game is also known as Ali guli mane (in Kannada), Vamana guntalu (in Telugu), Pallanghuzi (inTamil) and Kuzhipara (in Malayalam).

The game is played by two players, with a wooden board that has fourteen pits in all (hence the name from the words fourteen pits (pathinaalam kuzhi). There have been several variations in the layout of the pits, one among them being seven pits on each player’s side. The pits contain Cowry shells, seeds or small pebbles used as counters. There are several variations of the game depending on the number of shells each player starts with.This board game with 14 cups is set out with six seeds in each cup; the players distribute these seeds into the other cups until there are no seeds left. The person who reaches two consecutive cups without seeds has to bow out of the game. This game is popular among the kids as well as the old. Kids are encouraged to play this game as it teaches how to count, improves eye–hand coordination and develops concentration while playing. And for the older people of the house, it is a god way to spend time in the company of the young members of the family. In Indonesia, this is known as Congkak or Congklakin. It is somwhat similar to Brainvita.

Dice

The dice is attributed to India based on certain accounts. Some of the earliest archaeological evidence of oblong dice have been found in  the Harrapan sites such as Kalibangan, Lothal, Ropar, Alamgirpur, Desalpur and the surrounding territories. Some of these oblong dice that were used for gambling, date back to the third millennium BCE. The oblong or cubical dice (akṣa) is the precursor of the more primitive vibhīṣaka—small, hard nuts drawn randomly to obtain factors of a certain integer. Dicing is believed to have later spread towards the west to Persia, influencing Persian board games. Early references to dicing can be found in the Ṛig Veda as well as the Atharva Veda.

Polo

India is said to have set the base for modern Polo. In the 15th century, Babur made the sport popular when he founded the Mughal Empire. Later, the Britishers globalized the sport which was only played in the areas of Manipur, Jammu & Kashmir and other states. Another variation of polo is the one played with Elephants and is known as ‘Elephant Polo’. It is played in India (Rajasthan), Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, England and Scotland. Since very ancient times, Elephants have been a part of Indian culture. They were representatives of the strength and power of Kings and Emperors. It was therefore natural that polo “The King of Sports”and simultaneously “The Sport of the Kings” was included to be played on elephants as well.

It was invented in India during the early 1900s when we were a part of the British Empire and the first people to play were members of the English aristocracy. Elephant polo is played between two teams of three or four elephants. Each elephant is ridden by two people, a player and a mahout. Mahouts are professional elephant handlers who work for many years with an individual animal to develop a close rapport. They are able to communicate quickly and effectively by using spoken commands and by pressing behind the elephant’s ears with their feet. Players are tied onto the back of their elephant in rope harnesses, so they can concentrate on hitting the ball without the fear of falling off. The players give directions to the mahouts and the mahouts give directions to the elephants.

Bull Fighting

Bull Fighting which is also known as JallikattuEruthazhuvuthal or Manju viraṭṭu, is a bull taming sport played in Tamil Nadu as a part of Pongal celebrations on Mattu Pongal day. Bulls are bred specifically for the sporting event and a specific breed of cattle bred for this purpose is known as “Jellicut“. In May 2014, the Supreme Court banned the sport citing animal welfare issues. Bullfighting was common among the ancient tribes who lived in the ‘Mullai’ geographical division of the ancient Tamil country. Later, the sport became a platform to display bravery, win prize money and a form of entertainment. The term “Jallikattu” originated from the words “Jalli” and “Kattu“, referring to silver or gold coins tied to the bulls’ horns. A seal from the Indus Valley Civilization depicting the sport is preserved in the National Museum, New Delhi. A single painting discovered in a cave about 35 km west of Madurai shows a lone man trying to control a bull. The painting, done in white kaolin is estimated to be about 1,500 years old.

Kho Kho

Kho Kho was started in India way back and  it was played by the people of Maharashtra. Kho-Kho ranks as one of the most popular traditional sports in India. The origin of Kho-Kho is difficult to trace, but many historians believe, that it is a modified form of ‘Run Chase’, which in its simplest form involves chasing and touching a person. With its origins in Maharashtra, Kho-Kho in ancient times, was played on ‘raths’ or chariots, and was known as Rathera.

It is an ancient game of the undivided India, pssibly derived from the different strategy and tactics of the “Kurukshetra” war in the Mahabharta. The chariot fight during the war and the zigzag pathways followed by the retreating soldiers indicates the formation of Chain Play-Defense Skill in the game of Kho-Kho. On the 11th day of the war, the Chief of Kaurava Army, Guru Dronacharya drew a typical strategic circular formation- Chakravyuh, keeping Jayadratha at the main entrance with seven soldiers to draw in and kill the enemy. Veer Abhimanyu, the son of Arjuna, entered into the trap but could not get his way out and in the process got killed. He fought gallantly alone against seven soldiers. The method adopted by Abhimanyu resembles the idea of “Ring Play” – a Defense tactic in Kho-Kho. It became popular in 1935 when the first edition of the rules were published by Akhil Maharashtra Shareerika Shikshan Mandal. It is also called “Game of Chase” . Over the years the rules have gone under a major change. The first Indian Kho-Kho Championship was held in 1959 under the Kho-Kho federation of india. In the year 1982, the game was included in the Indian Olympic Association.

Gilli Danda

Gilli Danda is an ancient sport of India, possibly with origins over 2500 years ago. It is believed to be the origin of Western games such as Cricket, Baseball and Softball. It is called dānggűli in Bangla, chinni-dandu in Kannada, kuttiyum kolum in Malayalam, viti-dandu in Marathi, kitIti-pullu in Tamil, gooti-billa in Telugu, and Lappa-Duggi in Pashto. This sport is generally played in the rural and small towns of the Indian subcontinent. It is widely played in Punjab and rural areas of the North-West Frontier Province and Sindh (Pakistan) and Sultanpur district, Uttar Pradesh. The game requires two sticks. The bigger one is called “danda” and the smaller one is called “gilli“. The player then uses the danda to hit the gilli at the raised end, which flips it into the air. While it is in the air, the player strikes the gilli, hitting it as far as possible. Having struck the gilli, the player is required to run and touch a pre-agreed point outside the circle before the gilli is retrieved by an opponent.

Kabaddi

Kabaddi is a contact sport that originated in Ancient India. There is concrete evidence that the game is 4,000 years old. It originated in the state of Tamil Nadu. The game is derived from group hunting and village defense tactics. Kabaddi is an umbrella term which encompasses various forms of the game including International rules of Kabaddi and the Indian Kabaddi styles – Sanjeevani, Gaminee, Amar and Punjabi. Kabaddi also encompasses similar sports known by their regional names, such as hadudu in Bangladesh, baibalaa in Maldives, chedugudu in Andhra Pradesh, sadugudu in Tamil Nadu and hututu in Maharashtra. India is the most successful team on the world stage, having won every World Cup and Asian Games title so far, in both men’s and women’s categories.

It is a combative sport with seven players on each side and is played for a period of 40 mins. The basic concept of the game is touching a player on the other side and eliminating him by coming back to the origin side of the player. It is a team sport, which requires both skill and power, and combines the characteristics of wrestling and rugby. The game originated from Ancient India and the modern Kabaddi became popular in 1930. Dhopkel is also a similar to Kabbadi but is played more in Assam areas. Dhop is the name given to a rubber ball that two teams throw across a central line into each other’s courts. Each team sends a player into the opponent’s court; the aim is to catch the ball his team throws and make his way back to his team without allowing the opponents to touch him to earn points.

Rugby

Yubi Lakpi, a traditional football game played in Manipur using a coconut, has some notable similarities to Rugby. Despite these similarities, the name is not related to the game of Rugby or the Rugby School in England. It is in fact of Manipuri origin, and means literally “coconut snatching”. Perhaps this was the root of modern Rugby. Most Manipuris are quite adamant that the modern world stole the idea from them and made it into Rugby . This game which has been around for centuries is so similar to Rugby, which evolved a great deal later, that it must be more than just a coincidence. The game is traditionally associated with autochthonous forms of Hinduism. It is said to have started as a ceremonial re-enactment of the celestial snatching of the pot of nectar after the Samundra Manthan. An official game is held on the occasion of the Yaoshang Festival of Shri Shri Govindajee at palace ground with Royal presence.

Unlike Rugby, it is an individual sport and not a team one. Before the start of the game, players rub their bodies with mustard oil and water to make it slippery to catch each other.  Each side has 7 players in a field and one of the ends of the field has a rectangular box, a side of which forms the central portion of the goal line. To score a goal a player has to approach the goal from the front with his oiled coconut and pass the goal line. The coconut serves the purpose of a ball and is offered to the king or the judges who sit just beyond the goal line. However, in ancient times the teams were not equally matched but the player with the coconut had to tackle the rest of the players. The ultimate goal of yubi lakpi is to present the coconut to the King or the head of the tribe . It is a game of individuals because each player is vying to win the coconut and get the reward. In the original games, the King would watch the players to see who was the most skillful and who possessed qualities for the battlefield . Each player would therefore try to impress.

Martial Arts

Martial arts is a part of India’s ancient culture and is a traditional game. Originally, the traditional form of martial arts started in the southern part of India and now it not only has different names but also has different forms that’s practiced in the different regions of India. Khusti – The Indian Wrestling is also a part of Indian Martial Arts and is found throughout India. Indian martial arts has an important influence in the development of modern Asian martial arts. Nowadays, people have started opting martial arts training for self-defense as well as for for fitness. Indian martial arts can be roughly divided into northern and southern styles. A detailed list of the various forms of Martial Arts that has its origins in India will be discussed in the next blog!

Happy Playing!

Popular Myths You Thought Were True!

Many times the things we think of as common knowledge is nothing more than just a Myth that has been passed down to us generation after generation! Here are a few popular myths that  have been debunked. At any rate, this list is by no means exhaustive. So if are are aware of any other widely known myth or urban legend, go ahead and leave a comment.

Our Tongue Is Mapped!

There are no different receptors for each taste whether it’s, bitter, sour, salty, sweet, umami, spicy, minty and so on. The entire tongue can sense all of these tastes more or less equally. So, while some parts of the tongue may be able to detect a taste before the others do, all parts are equally good at conveying the different kinds of taste. Threshold sensitivity may differ across the tongue, but the intensity of sensation does not.

Bulls Hate Red!

Bulls are colorblind! They actually react to motions of the bull fighter’s cloth as a perceived threat. Although professional matadors use a red cape to enrage their bull, it is not the color red that makes the animal angry! The bulls will charge regardless of the color due to the threat posed by the matador.

The Great Wall Of China Is Visible From Space!

First of all we have to define where “space” starts. Is it 50 miles, 100 miles, the moon? For our purposes we will use the International Space Station, and guess what? Thats right, you can’t see the Great Wall of China from there. By the way, the ISS is about 173 miles above sea level which is considered low Earth orbit. That’s barely even space. There are man made structures visible from that height, however, one being the Giza Pyramids and Airport Runways! While many believe this, the truth is that none of the Apollo astronauts reported seeing it from the Moon or even close to the Earth’s surface! There are several variations on this folkloric statement, and they’re all quantifiably false.

Bats Are Blind!

Don’t be fact-blind! The truth is that all 1,100 bat species can see but no animal, including the Bat, can see in complete darkness! Since Bats are night creatures and hunt insects in the dark, they have an additional trick called echolocation that helps them navigate their way in complete darkness. They create sounds that bounce off nearby objects which enables them to locate food.

We Have 5 Senses!

The standard list of five senses doesn’t really give our bodies credit for all of the amazing things they can do. Apart from the basic touch, smell, hearing, taste, sight, we have close to 20 in all which include the sense of balance, pain, hunger, thirst, fullness, heat, cold, itch, pressure, etc.

Antibiotics Kill Viruses!

This word pops up every cold and flu season. Antibiotics, by their very definition, kill bacteria. The common cold and influenza are viruses and are not affected by antibiotic use. While some might think that taking an antibiotic could prove helpful on some level, it could actually bring in more problems. Taking antibiotics in a manner contrary to their intended purpose or dosage instruction could cause other common bacteria within the body to become drug-resistant! This could create “superbugs” that cause illness much worse than the primary.

It Takes 7 Years To Digest Chewing Gum! 

The gum base is insoluble, just like the fiber base of raw vegetables, corn, popcorn kernels, and seeds. Our bodies do not possess digestive enzymes to specifically break down gum base. Gum will stick readily to your shoe but it does not stick to your stomach wall or the intestinal tract. Instead of hanging around for years, it simply travels the same path as food and is excreted in stool. Doctors figure this old wives’ tale was invented to prevent kids from swallowing the rubbery substance.

Primitive Humans & Dinosaurs Crossed Paths!

Humans and Dinosaurs coexist only in books, movies and cartoons. The last dinosaurs – other than birds – died out dramatically about 65 million years ago, while the fossils of our earliest human ancestors are only about 6 million years old. So they never lived among one another at the same time!

A Penny Dropped From A Height Could Kill!

A penny isn’t the most aerodynamic of weapons. A combination of its shape and wind friction means that, tossed even from the 1,250-foot Empire State Building, it would travel fast enough merely to sting an unlucky pedestrian.

There Is No Gravity In Space!

Blame the term “zero-gravity” for this common misconception. Gravity is everywhere, even in space. Most of us only experience gravity in the downward direction, but gravity is not just a downward force. It pulls in all directions and dimensions. Astronauts appear weightless because they are in continuous freefall towards the Earth, staying aloft because of their horizontal motion. While orbiting, they are falling towards the earth but moving sufficiently sideways to miss it. So they are basically always falling but never landing. The effect of gravity diminishes with distance, but it never truly goes away. Gravity exists in virtually all areas of space. When a shuttle reaches orbit height (around 250 miles above the earth), gravity is reduced by only 10%. It’s also untrue that space is a vacuum. There are a lot of atoms out there, albeit sometimes far apart!

Humans Use Only 10% Of Their Brains!

This media darling has been around for at least a century. Fortunately, it’s just not true. What is correct, however, is that at certain moments in anyone’s life, such as when we are simply at rest and thinking, we may be using only 10 percent of our brains. And of course, not everyone uses brain t to its full capacity. If that would have been true, everyone would have been an Einstein or remember π to the twenty-thousandth decimal place or perhaps even have telekinetic powers! MRI imaging clearly demonstrates–with fancy colors no less–that humans put most of their cerebral cortex to good use, even while dozing.

Reading In Low Light Will Make You Go Blind!

This is completely false. Our ancestors used to read, sew and do a number of other chores by firelight, and none of them ever went blind from it. Research shows that reading in low light can strain your eyes, but they go back to normal as soon as you turn a brighter light on.

When You Shave, The Hair Grows Back Thicker & Faster!

Re-grown hair isn’t thicker, coarser or darker. It just appears so because it’s no longer tapered! A study that was done 80 years ago actually proved that this was not true, but many people still believe it today. Hair is dead and so shaving it is not going to make it grow faster. The follicles beneath the surface of the skin make your hair grow and what comes out is dead by the time it reaches the skin’s surface. So another reason why it appears darker and thicker is because it hasn’t been exposed to the sun or chemicals for very long!

Eating A Low-Fat Diet Is Healthy!

In the 90’s everyone was doing low-fat. There were low-fat cookies and other sweets, even low-fat pasta! You name it and there was a low-fat version. The truth is, the human body needs a certain amount of fat just the way you need carbs and proteins to stay healthy. So following a low-fat diet can actually go against your plan. Also, many food products that are labeled low-fat, are replaced with sugar, which as everyone knows can lead to weight gain and a whole host of other health problems!

Saturn Has Solid Rings Around Them!

The beautiful rings of Saturn are not solid bands. The rings are comprised of individual dust and ice particles that range in size from microscopic to many feet long. The dark grains of dust making up this faint ring are probably debris that cosmic impacts knocked off the gas giant’s distant and equally dark moon Phoebe. The spectacular ring system may date back some 4.4 billion years to the time when the planet itself formed. In fact, the giant ring around Saturn is even larger than thought, spanning an area of space nearly 7,000 times larger than the planet itself!

Macintosh Computers Are Virus Resistant!

80% of the computer industry is ruled by Windows, so hackers are merely attacking the majority. They are not immune to viruses, but viruses aren’t really made for OS X because the amount of users is relatively small.

There Are 3 States Of Matter!

Contrary to what you learned in grade school, there are four states of matter and not three. Solid, liquid, gas, and plasma are the four states of matter you see every day! Other known states are Bose–Einstein Condensates and Neutron-Degenerate matter, but these only occur in extreme situations such as ultra cold or ultra dense matter.

Share the post & comment below with the Myths you know of!

Happy Debunking! 🙂

9 Nights, 9 Goddesses, 9 Stories! That’s Navratri!

One of the most sacred festivals of India, Navratri is here! And as we all know, this festival is spread over 9 nights and 10 days in worship of Goddess Durga or Shakti which represents the energy of the universe, in her 9 beautiful forms with great reverence. In Hinduism, Mother Goddess is honored in all her manifestations and the celebration culminates on the 10th day with Dussehra, which symbolizes the victory of good over evil.

As the ten-armed Goddess, Mata Durga presents a radiantly beautiful form that is bewitching to behold. The 9-day period from the new moon day to the 9th day of Lunar month of Ashwin is considered the most auspicious time of the Hindu calendar and is hence the most celebrated occasion of the year.

The 9 different forms of Devi are worshiped over the 9 days. These are the most popular forms under which she is worshiped.

Durga Shailputri 

She is a daughter of Himalaya and the first among 9 avatars of Goddess Durgas. In her previous birth, she was the daughter of Daksha. Her name was Sati – Bhavani. i.e. the wife of Lord Shiva. Once Daksha had organized a big Yagna and did not invite Shiva. But Sati being obstinate, went for the Yagna. There upon Daksha insulted Shiva.

Sati could not tolerate the insult of her husband and burnt herself in the fire of Yagna. In her next birth she became the daughter of Himalaya in the name of Parvati – Hemvati and got married to Lord Shiva. As per the Upanishads, she had destroyed the ego of many Devtas like Lord Indra. Being ashamed, they bowed and realized that in fact, she is Shakti and everyone including Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh are capable of who they are by only after receiving Shakti (Energy) from the Goddess.

Brahmacharini

The second avatar of Goddess Durga is Brahmacharini. Brahma is that who observes penance (tapa) and good conduct. Here “Brahma” means “Tapa”. The idol of this Goddess is a very gorgeous one with a rosary (maala) in her right hand and a Kamandal in her left.

In her previous birth she was Parvati Hemavati, the daughter of Himalay. As the story goes, Brahmacharini was busy playing games with her friends when Naradaji came to her and by reading her Palm-lines he predicted that she would get married to a naked and terrible ‘Bhole baba’ who was her husband in her previous birth as Sati, the daughter of Daksha. He also told her that she had to perform penance for him now. There upon Parvati told her mother Menaka that she would marry only Shambhu or she would remain unmarried for life. Saying this she went to observe penance. And that’s how she became famously known as Tapacharini or Brahmacharini. Thereon, her name Uma became familiar too.

Chandraghanta 

The name of the third Shakti is Chandraghanta. Her name means “one who has a half-moon shaped like a bell. She has ten hands holding a trident, mace, arrow, bow, sword, lotus, goad, bell and waterpot and one of her hands remain in a blessing posture. She rides a tiger or a lion as her vehicle, which represents bravery and courage. She wears a half moon on her forehead and has a third eye in the middle of her forehead. Her complexion is golden.

After Lord Shiva gives Parvati his word that he wouldn’t marry any woman, her sufferings overwhelm him so much that he gives up and followed by a tearful reunion he agrees to get married to her. Soon, the joyous moment of Parvati’s life starts when Shiva brings a procession of gods, mortals, ghosts, ghouls, goblins, sages, ascetics, Aghoris and Shivaganas to the gates of King Himavan’s palace to take away his bride Parvati. Shiva arrives at King Himavan’s palace in a terrorizing form and seeing this, Parvati’s mother faints in terror. Parvati appears to Shiva and sees his fearsome form. To save her parents and other family members, she transforms herself into Goddess Chandraghanta.

Chandraghanta persuades Shiva to re-appear in a charming avatar and thus he appears as a prince decorated with countless jewels. Parvati revives her mother, father and friends and they both get married to one another.

 

Kushmanda

The fourth form of Goddess Durga is Kushmanda. Ku means “little,” Ushma means “warmth” or “energy”, and Anda means “cosmic egg.” She is considered to have created this universe with her divine smile.

When the universe was non-existent and darkness prevailed everywhere, Maa Kushmanda produced the Cosmic egg with her smile, bringing light to the universe. Kushmanda has the power and strength to live in the core of the Sun. Her luminosity gives the Sun its brightness. She is said to give direction to the Sun God, Surya.

Kushmanda is Goddess Shakti herself, the first being of the entire universe and she is believed to be the only one who created this universe by transforming half of her being as Shiva. They thus created the universe and other Gods and Goddesses too. Adi Shakti took herself into three forms. One of the three splits was her own form Kali and hence we find Adi Shakti as well as Kali as the wives of Shiva.

Skanda Mata

The fifth form of Goddess Durga is “Skanda Mata”. Skanda is another name for Kartikeya and Mata denotes mother. Skandamata rides on a lion and possesses four arms, out of which two often hold the lotus flowers. One of her hands is always in the boon-conferring gesture and with the other she holds her son Skanda in her lap. Her complexion is white and she is also seen seated on the lotus, which is why she is also called the Goddess with a lotus-seat.

As per the belief, Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati’s energy combines into their own forms of nature while in deep meditation. On knowing this, Lord Indra assigns Lord Agni (Fire) to kidnap the ball of energy and keep it for safety from Demon Tarakasur. After meditation, Parvati realizes what happened and chases after Lord Agni who vanishes with the divine energy to Goddess Ganga. Parvati comes out of her cave and questions the Gods on why Lord Agni stole the divine energy. Parvati gets angry and attains the form of Goddess Durga, when they tell her the reason. She curses the Gods that their wives will never be able to enjoy the happiness with their children and with that, curses Lord Agni that he will be an all-burner, unable to differentiate the differences between right and wrong, his food will have impurities, that he will always be surrounded by black smoke and anyone who touches him in one of the three worlds, will get reduced to ash. Meanwhile, Shiva comes out of the cave and calms her down. Later, Shiva’s son Kartikeya (Murugan or Skand) is born from the six Krittikas (Mothers) and not Parvati. But still, the Goddess accepts him as her own child, thus setting an example of a great mother before the world. In her Durga avatar, she takes Kartikeya from Kritika Lok (Krittika World) to Kailash riding this Lion. Upon growing up, Kartikeya learns about the boon of special powers and weapons given by Lord Bhrahma to kill Demon Tarakasur. Before going to the battlefield, Parvati transforms herself as Goddess Durga to bless Kartikeya. With her blessings, he manages to kill Tarakasur and his army! The Gods thus make him their commander-in-chief.

Katyayani

The sixth form of Goddess Durga is Katyayani. She is called Katyayani as she was born to Sage Katya of the Katya clan. This is the daughter form of Durga. A loving daughter, she is the epitome of love but won’t hesitate to rise up in anger to defend righteousness and Dharma. It is believed that Maa Katyayani persistently battled against the evil and deceitful entities.

Sage Katyayan performed severe penance to please Maa Bhagvati and wished for Maa Durga to be born as his daughter. The Goddess acceded to his request. Meanwhile, an army of the powerful demon Mahishasura, who could only be killed by a warrior Goddess, had reached heaven to overthrow the Gods from their abode! The trinity of Gods – Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, were infuriated and they create Goddess Durga, who was a culmination of the powers of all the deities. Sage Katyayana had the first privilege to worship her and so she was also named Katyayani.

Kalratri

The seventh form of Goddess Durga is Kalratri. She is black like the night. Hairs unlocked, her necklaces shine as bright as the lightening! She has three bright eyes that are round like the universe and thousands of flames of fire come out of her nose while she breathes. Kalaratri is the one of the fiercest forms of Durga and her appearance itself evokes fear. This form of Goddess is believed to be the destroyer of all demon entities.

She rides on Shava (dead body). She holds a sharp sword in her right hand while her lower hand is in blessing gesture. The burning torch (mashal) is in her left hand and her lower left hand is in a fearless gesture by which she makes her devotees fearless. She is known as “Shubhamkari” in her auspicious state.

There were two demons named Shumbha and Nishumbha, who invaded devaloka and defeated the demigods. Indra, the ruler of the demigods, along with the demigods went to The Himalayas to seek help in getting back their abode. They prayed to Goddess Parvati. She heard their prayer, while she was bathing and she therefore created another goddess Chandi or Ambika to help them out by killing the demons. In the battlefield when Chanda-Munda who was sent by Shumbha and Nishumbha, came to battle Chandi, she created a dark Goddess Kali or Kaalratri. Kali killed them, thus acquiring the name Chamunda. A demon named Raktveej had a special boon. If his drop of blood fell on the ground, another Raktveej would get created. When Kaalratri attacked him, his blood started creating several clones of him. This way it was impossible to defeat him. During the battle, furious Kaalratri attacked him and immediately drank his blood to prevent it from falling down. She thus killed Raktveej and helped goddess Chandi kill Shumbha and Nishumbha! This way, they gave back the demigods a safe place to live.

Maha Gauri

The eighth form of Goddess Durga is “Maha Gauri.” She is as white as a Conch, Moon and Jasmine. She is usually depicted with four hands, three of which hold a trident, lotus and drum, while the fourth is in a blessing gesture. The lotus is sometimes replaced with a rosary. She rides a white bull, usually shown wearing white clothes. The top left hand is in “Fearless – Mudra” and her lower left hand holds “Trishul.” 

She is calm and peaceful and exists in a peaceful form. It is said that while observing penance, the dust and earth made Gauri’s body really dirty. Shiva cleans her with the water of River Ganga and Immediately her body transforms into a bright form like the lightning! Thus she is known as “Maha Gauri” as well.

Siddhidatri

The ninth form of Goddess Durga is Siddhidatri. There are eight Siddhis which are Anima, Mahima, Garima, Laghima, Prapti, Prakamya, Iishitva & Vashitva and these Siddhi’s are given by Maha Shakti.

It is said in the “Devipuran” that the Supreme God Shiva got all these Siddhi’s by worshiping Maha Shakti. With her gratitude, Lord Shiva’s half self was transformed into a Goddess and therefore his name “Ardhanarishvar” became well known. The Goddess drives on a Lion, has four hands and looks pleased. This form of Durga is worshiped by all Gods, Rishis-Munis, Siddhas, Yogis, Sadhakas and devotees for attaining the best religious asset.

Happy Navratri!

Characteristics Of An Introvert!

Some people assume introverts are socially anxious, but that’s not really the case. Introverts just don’t handle social situations as well as extroverts do. Although the stereotypical introvert would be at the party, hanging out alone by the food table fiddling with the phone, the “social butterfly” can just as easily have an introverted personality! Sometimes a lot of introverts can pass off as extroverts! In fact, introverts can be warm, interested in others and powerful in their own right as well. People are frequently unaware that they’re introverts, especially if they’re not shy! They may not realize that being an introvert is more than just cultivating time alone.

It can be more helpful to pay attention to whether one is losing or gaining energy from being around others, even if the company of friends gives them pleasure. While introverts and extroverts are often viewed in terms of two extreme opposites, the truth is that most people lie somewhere in the middle of the extroversion-introversion continuum. There are certainly plenty of introverts who are socially reserved and who would prefer to stay home and read a book rather than go to a big party, but there are also plenty of introverts who enjoy socializing. You might even be surprised to learn that many people who you think of as “social butterflies” might actually be quite introverted!

The following behavioral signs of introversion can give you a start in learning about traits and attitudes that suggest that your personality (or that of someone you know) may be less outer-oriented than you realize. See how many you feel honestly apply to you!

SOCIALIZING

We don’t need alone time because we don’t like you. Don’t take it personally. But we need alone time because we just need alone time! In fact we aren’t even judging anyone when we sit quietly. We’re just sitting quietly, probably having a good time watching extroverts in action. And though it might not look like it on the way we behave sometimes, if we say we’re having fun, we are having fun. And if we leave early, it’s not because we’re party poopers. We’re just pooped. Socializing takes a lot out of us! When we want to stay in, we just do it without making a big, aggrieved production about how it is absolutely essential for us to stay in sometimes—we need to do it, we just have to recharge—because we have extreme intermittent photosensitivity OF THE SOUL! Also, we are always on or before time.

TALKING

If you want to hear what we have to say, give us time to say it. We don’t fight to be heard over other people. We just clam up. Just as introverts are less likely to volunteer in public situations, they are also less likely to volunteer opinions or advice in less public settings. Whether it’s a family discussion around the kitchen table or a staff meeting to decide how to market new products, people high in introversion will keep their views to themselves and let the noisy extroverts take control. Because of this, and because your advice may indeed be highly valued, it’s likely that if you’re constantly being asked “What do you think?” it might suggest that your behavior sends cues to others of your inner desire to focus your attention and thoughts inward. We may look disinterested in striking up a conversation and might even seem lonely, but we are not! We are just choosy. And we’re loyal to friends who don’t try to make us over into extroverts. We speak at a volume perceivable by humans. We don’t obsess over the possibility that occasionally liking to perform activities solo (reading, going for walks, etc.) makes us extremely unique. “Extroverts don’t have the same internal talking as we do,” says Olsen Laney. “Most introverts need to think first and talk later.” As you might remember from your elementary school days, there were some fellow students whose hands shot straight up into the air when the teacher asked a question or needed someone to volunteer. Extroverts tend to be ready and eager to stand out in any academic or social situation. You are probably more of an introvert than an extrovert if you are content to sit back and let others take center stage. It’s not that introverts know less than others; they just don’t feel a particular need to be in that limelight. I remember my best friend would poke me to raise my hands up because she knew I was aware of the answers to the question and still sat there quiet on my bench.

COMMUNICATION

Anything but the telephone. You may not pick up your phone even from people you like, but you’ll call them back as soon as you’re mentally prepared and have gathered the energy for the conversation. “To me, a ringing phone is like having somebody jump out of a closet and go ‘BOO!,'” says Dembling. “I do like having a long, nice phone call with a friend — as long as it’s not jumping out of the sky at me.” We interact with other humans in orthodox ways and sometimes it’s fun and sometimes it’s not and mostly it’s whatever. Most of those who know me would agree with this! I can talk comfortably over the telephone to just about 10 people in the world at the moment. We communicate emotions, fears, and desires to relevant parties in a clear way.  Sometimes you do things alone without tweeting “OHHHH MY GODDDD I LOVE TO DO THINGS ALOOOOONE!!!!!!!!! #INTROVERT”. Introverts are notoriously small talk-phobic, as they find idle chatter to be a source of anxiety, or at least annoyance. For many quiet types, chitchat can feel disingenuous. “Let’s clear one thing up: Introverts do not hate small talk because we dislike people. We hate small talk because we hate the barrier it creates between people.”

GOOD LISTENERS

Introverts listen before they speak. They watch from the sidelines and take some mental notes before they insert themselves into any social situation. This preparation allows them to enter a conversation confidently, without stumbling over their words or doubting the accuracy of what they say. Introverts are often described as quiet, reserved, mellow, and are sometimes mistaken for being shy. While some introverts certainly are shy, people certainly should not mistake an introvert’s reserve for timidity. In many cases, people with this personality type simply prefer to choose their words carefully and not waste time or energy on needless chit-chat. If you are the quiet type and a little bit reserved, you probably are an introvert. We shy away from asking questions and we also dislike being asked too many questions. We would rather analyze on our own instead. We also do not like unnecessary explanation which we are asked to do to prove ourselves. It stresses us out! All things said, we can talk endlessly with people we know very closely or enjoy being with.

SELF SUFFICIENT

Introverts are not dependent people. They believe it is foolish to depend on another person to take care of their material needs. This freedom makes them feel empowered, because they know they can manage any curve ball that life might throw at them. It’s true that opposites attract, and introverts frequently gravitate towards outgoing extroverts who encourage them to have fun and not take themselves too seriously. “Introverts are sometimes drawn to extroverts because they like being able to ride their ‘fun bubble.'” They are shy with their love interest even when they are comfortable.

SUPER FOCUSED

Introverts concentrate with everything they’ve got. They make a point of paying attention to nonverbal cues that might reveal hidden meanings, because they know words are only half of the story. This ability helps them avoid potential misunderstandings. Introverts identify changes in their environment very quickly. They will probably be the first person to notice a new haircut. This often causes their friends and coworkers to thank them for being so thoughtful. The upside of being overwhelmed by too much stimuli is that introverts often have a keen eye for detail, noticing things that may escape others around them. Research has found that introverts exhibit increased brain activity when processing visual information, as compared to extroverts. When describing the way that introverts think, Jung explained that they’re more interested in ideas and the big picture rather than facts and details. Of course, many introverts excel in detail-oriented tasks — but they often have a mind for more abstract concepts as well. “Introverts do really enjoy abstract discussion,”

EASY TO PLEASE

Introverts don’t need much to feel happy and content. They would rather stay home and enjoy a good book or bubble bath than go to a loud bar and buy expensive drinks. This distinction helps them save money and relax after stressful days. They forgive easily. Introverts are masters of their emotions. They reflect until they are able to understand the triggers that are responsible for their negative thoughts. This retrospection helps them dig deep enough to deal with entrenched self-defeating beliefs that limit their potential. Introverts are trustworthy as they can keep secrets. They know how hard it can be to trust somebody, so they won’t share a personal detail if you don’t want them to. This is exactly why introverts are excellent best friends. But they are often taken for granted because they seldom complain. They are patient and can tolerate irritating people too. But we are likely to avoid people who seem like they might be in a bad mood, if not outright furious at something or someone. People high in introversion don’t want to look at someone who seems mad. This is because they are more sensitive to potentially negative evaluations. If you think a person is angry because of something to do with you, his or her gaze becomes a threat.

LEARNERS

Introverts believe knowledge is power. They are intensely interested in the things that they care about and want to learn everything they can. This eagerness helps them become experts in their fields. Introverts have interesting things to say. They might not be fans of small talk, but that doesn’t mean they can’t be engaging in a deep discussion. This distinction is a common source of confusion. Introverts are often considered to be “quiet,” but that’s not because they don’t like people. They just don’t like to talk about trivial things. Introverts are passionate people who want to make the most of their days, so they’d rather not waste their time with a shallow conversation. If you want to find out how fascinating an introvert can be, simply ask them an intelligent question about a topic that they care about. They have a penchant for philosophical conversations and a love of thought-provoking books and movies! Introverts like to jump into the deep end. Introverts observe and take in a lot of information, and they think before they speak, leading them to appear wise to others. Introverts tend to think hard and be analytical.  We are often called an ‘old soul’ since our 20’s! Despite the belief that introverts are so quiet, they can be the best leaders of all. If the group is ready to lead itself, then the introverted leader will draw the most potential out of them. It’s only when the group needs a spark provided by its head that introverts might be unable to provide the necessary guidance. Then you’ll need to partner with an extroverted yin to your yang.

NETWORKING

If you’re an introvert, you may sometimes enjoy going to parties, but chances are, you’re not going because you’re excited to meet new people. At a party, most introverts would rather spend time with people they already know and feel comfortable around. If you happen to meet a new person that you connect with, great — but meeting people is rarely the goal. Networking (read: small-talk with the end goal of advancing your career) can feel particularly disingenuous for introverts, who crave authenticity in their interactions. “Networking is stressful if we do it in the ways that are stressful to us,” Dembling says, advising introverts to network in small, intimate groups rather than at large mixers.

DISLIKES CROWD

We feel like an outsider in the middle of social gatherings and group activities, even with people we know! If you tend to find yourself feeling alone in a crowd, you might be an introvert. We might let friends or activities pick us, rather than extending our own invitations. One of the most fundamental characteristics of introverts is that they need time alone to recharge their batteries. Whereas an extrovert might get bored or antsy spending a day at home alone with tea and a stack of magazines, this sort of down time feels necessary and satisfying to an introvert. Do you start to get tired and unresponsive after you’ve been out and about for too long? It’s likely because you’re trying to conserve energy. Everything introverts do in the outside world causes them to expend energy, after which they’ll need to go back and replenish their stores in a quiet environment. Short of a quiet place to go, many introverts will resort to zoning out. We feel exhausted after spending time with a lot of people. After a day interacting with others, we often need to retreat to a quiet place and have an extended amount of time all to oneself. One of the major characteristics of this personality type is that introverts have to expend energy in social situations, unlike extroverts who gain energy from such interactions. That doesn’t mean that all introverts avoid social events altogether. Many introverts actually enjoy spending time around others, with one key caution – introverts tend to prefer the company of close friends. While an extrovert might go to a party with the goal to meet new people, an introvert goes with the intent of spending quality time talking to good friends.

DISTRACTED EASILY

While extroverts tend to get bored easily when they don’t have enough to do, introverts have the opposite problem! They get easily distracted and overwhelmed in environments with an excess of stimulation.”Extroverts are commonly found to be more easily bored than introverts on monotonous tasks, probably because they require and thrive on high levels of stimulation,” Clark University researchers wrote in a paper published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. “In contrast, introverts are more easily distracted than extroverts and, hence, prefer relatively unstimulating environments.” But on the other hand they tend to be self-driven and disciplined too. They don’t need approval from external sources, so they direct their energy to the pursuit of an ambitious goal instead. This ambition often turns introverts into highly successful people.

EXCELLENT PUBLIC SPEAKERS

Introverts can be excellent leaders and public speakers — and although they’re stereotyped as being the shrinking violet, they don’t necessarily shy away from the spotlight. Performers like Lady Gaga, Christina Aguilera and Emma Watson all identify as introverts, and an estimated 40 percent of CEOs have introverted personalities. Instead, an introvert might struggle more with meeting and greeting large groups of people on an individual basis. We avoid shows that have active audience participation!  Whether it’s making your way through a crowded bus station or just navigating a crowded street, if you’re an introvert you most likely don’t seek a great deal of contact with others. In decades past, if you wanted to avoid interacting with strangers, you would keep your head down and look straight in front of you. Now you have the added protection of being able to hide behind the protection of your headphones (though no one has to know whether there’s actually music coming through them or not).

LOVES SOLITUDE

Whenever possible, introverts tend to avoid being surrounded by people on all sides. We’re likely to sit in places where we can get away when we’re ready to – easily. We opt for seats in the aisle, the back or at the corner to avoid interaction! But we’re not opposed to group meetings or discussions, but if we want to come up with a creative solution, we need some time to work the problem out on our own. Having the opportunity to reflect quietly on a problem allows you to make the maximum use of your ability to engage in original thought, and to produce results about which you can feel proud. As an introvert, our idea of a good time is a quiet afternoon to ourselves enjoying our hobbies and interests. A few hours alone with a good book, a peaceful nature walk, or a favorite television program are great ways to help you feel recharged and energized. This does not mean that the average introvert wants to be alone all the time. Many introverts love spending time with friends and interacting with familiar people in social situations. They key thing to remember is that after a long day of social activity, an introvert will probably want to retreat to a quiet place to think, reflect, and recharge. If having a few hours to be alone sounds like your idea of a good time, you just might be an introvert.

DON’T GET HIGH ON SURROUNDINGS

A 2006 Japanese study found that introverts tend to have lower blood pressure than their extroverted counterparts. Neuro-chemically speaking, things like huge parties just aren’t your thing. Extroverts and introverts differ significantly in how their brains process experiences through “reward” centers. Researchers demonstrated this phenomenon by giving Ritalin — the ADHD drug that stimulates dopamine production in the brain — to introverted and extroverted college students. They found that extroverts were more likely to associate the feeling of euphoria achieved by the rush of dopamine with the environment they were in. Introverts, by contrast, did not connect the feeling of reward to their surroundings. The study “suggests that introverts have a fundamental difference in how strongly they process rewards from their environment, with the brains of introverts weighing internal cues more strongly than external motivational and reward cues,” explained LiveScience’s Tia Ghose.

WRITERS

Many introverted children come to believe that there’s something “wrong” with them if they’re naturally less outspoken and assertive than their peers. Introverted adults often say that as children, they were told to come out of their shells or participate more in class. Introverts are often better at communicating in writing than in person, and many are drawn to the solitary, creative profession of writing. Most introverts — like “Harry Potter” author J.K. Rowling — say that they feel most creatively charged when they have time to be alone with their thoughts. Introverts can move around their introverted “set point” which determines how they need to balance solitude with social activity. But when they move too much — possibly by over-exerting themselves with too much socializing and busyness — they get stressed and need to come back to themselves, according Olsen Laney. This may manifest as going through periods of heightened social activity, and then balancing it out with a period of inwardness and solitude.”There’s a recovery point that seems to be correlated with how much interaction you’ve done,” says Dembling. “We all have our own private cycles.”

SMALL GROUP OF CLOSE FRIENDS

One common misconception about introverts is that they don’t like people. While introverts typically do not enjoy a great deal of socializing, they do enjoy having a small group of friends to whom they are particularly close. Instead of having a large social circle of people they know only on a superficial level, introverts prefer to stick to deep, long-lasting relationships marked by a great deal of closeness and intimacy. They might have a lot of friends on the social network but in reality they have very few close friends. If your social circle tends to be small, but very close, there’s a pretty good chance you are an introvert.

 ADVANTAGES

You’re less likely to make a social gaffe, such as by inadvertently insulting someone whose opinion you don’t agree with. Because you enjoy reflecting on your own thoughts, you’ll be less likely to get bored when you’re alone than someone who needs constant social stimulation. The only risk you face is that people who don’t know you might think you’re aloof or that you feel superior to everyone else. Giving yourself permission to be a little more open in revealing your thoughts and feelings may help you make the best of both worlds, being true to your personality while not erring in the direction of seeming antisocial.

Everyone exhibits some traits from each personality type—as Carl Jung said, “There is no such thing as a pure extrovert or a pure introvert. Such a man would be in a lunatic asylum.” But some people fall squarely in the middle. They may draw energy from a crowd one day, but feel the need to retreat the next. If this sounds like you, you might be an ambivert.

Remember, introversion is not an all-or-nothing characteristic. People can be what you might call introverts with a capital I (aka “very introverted”) or they might be outgoing in some situations with some introverted tendencies. Introversion exists on a continuum with extroversion, and most people tend to lie somewhere between the two.

Ten Signs, Your Boss Doesn’t Respect You!

Stumbled across this amazing article on Forbes contributed by Liz Ryan who also writes for the Huffington Post, Business Week, LinkedIn, the Harvard Business Review, the Denver Post and leads the worldwide Human Workplace movement to reinvent work for people!

I had a boss one time who would ask me for my opinion on various business topics at least once a day. She’d stop by my desk and ask me what I thought about this topic or that one. I was about 24 years old.

This was so far back in the day that cubicles were uncommon. Most of us sat at open desks and maybe if we were lucky, we had a little file cabinet next to our desk, too.

My manager would walk up to me and ask “Why are the inventory records out of date and how do we fix them?” I’d tell her what to do.

At first I was flattered. Then I realized that I was nothing to my boss – I was just a source for information, and an insignificant peon. Anything intelligent that I might say was immediately re-packaged as her own, original idea.

My boss would ask me for my opinion and then immediately forget that she had asked me.

She took my opinions and they became her own. She added nothing to them and subtracted nothing; she simply told people “Here’s what I think.”

If anybody asked her a clarifying question, her head might literally have exploded.

I figured that it didn’t matter whether my boss ever acknowledged my ideas or not, because if she stayed in her job beyond the point where I could tolerate her, I’d quit my job anyway.

That boss didn’t stick around long. Somebody figured out that she made a better ventriloquist’s dummy than a manager and she was out the door. Over time I learned that you can’t stick around to work for people who don’t respect you. What is the point?

If a job only pays your bills, it’s robbing you! The right job pays your bills and grows your flame. Working at the right job your mojo grows every day. You keep learning and you build up the people around you, who build you up in turn.

Here are ten signs your manager doesn’t respect you, and it’s time to make a change!

Your Time Means Nothing

Our client Jordan worked for a guy who would tell Jordan at nine or ten a.m. “There’s a report I need from you today.”

Jordan would ask “What kind of report?”

“I’ll tell you later,” his boss would say.

All day long Jordan would try to find out what kind of report his boss needed, without any success.

At four-forty-five his boss would finally say “Here are the report details. I need that report tonight!”

These reports took one to three hours to create. Jordan had finally had enough and he took an internal transfer over his boss’s objections.

Now there’s no one in his old department who knows how to create custom reports, so his inconsiderate boss has to go without them.

Your Boss ‘Forgets’ or Overlooks Commitments

When your boss doesn’t respect you, he or she will make commitments to you just to get you to stop asking. Then he or she will ‘forget’ the commitment or lie about it.

“What — I promised you a week of vacation in September? No way! You must be mistaken!”

You can put everything you say to your boss and everything s/he says to you in writing, but do you really want to live your life that way? There are other managers around who will value you instead of taking you for granted.

S/he Ignores Your Needs

A good manager asks you once or twice a year or more often “How are you doing? What do you need from me?”

A lousy manager doesn’t ask people what they need. Even when people communicate their needs clearly and wait patiently for their smallest requirements (from a copier that works to software that would make the work faster and more accurate), their needs don’t get met.

Life is long, but it’s too short to wait for a poor manager to wake up and listen to the people around him.

The Boss Explains Nothing

It’s hard to do your work when the burning question in your mind is “Why?”

Why did we change the product release schedule? Your boss doesn’t tell you, because he or she doesn’t think you need to know. Why was the meeting cancelled? Same answer.

Why have you changed my job description five times in the last month? Only your boss knows, and he or she isn’t saying. What does that tell you about the level of respect your boss has for you?

As Far as S/he’s Concerned, Anyone Could do Your Job

Bad bosses are fearful. They’re terrified!

If you’re good at your job, don’t expect a fearful boss to tell you that. He or she will take the opposite view, and make sure you know that in his or her opinion, anyone on the street could do your job.

Our client Alexander worked for a fearful VP. Alex’s boss told him “You’ve been very lucky here. You lucked into this manager job. A lot of people would want your job.”

Alex was feeling his mojo that day, and so he told his boss in a jocular tone “Really? Why do you put up with me, then?” Alex figured his boss was all bark and no bite, and he was right.

His boss wouldn’t have dared to try and do his VP job without Alex at his back.

The VP was bounced from his job after nine painful months.

Now Alex says “This time it worked out for me, but I don’t think I’d wait nine months for another lousy manager to get the boot. Those nine months probably shortened my lifespan by two years.”

Doesn’t Consult You in Your Area of Expertise

A bad boss will understand at some level (maybe a molecular level) that you know a lot more than he or she does, but don’t expect them to consult you in your area of expertise.

They’ll find somebody else to ask for advice, because it’s too hard for a fearful boss to admit that an underling like you knows more than they do.

Steals Your Ideas Without Hesitation

Like my boss a thousand years ago, many bad managers will steal their team members’ ideas without giving it a second thought. They don’t think of it as stealing.

They figure that you work for them so your ideas are naturally available to them without attribution or thanks. That’s not just how they view business ideas.

Their political beliefs, philosophical tenets and everything they think and believe comes from other people.

Can you imagine going through life without forming your own opinions? Maybe not, but lots of people do it!

Couldn’t Care Less How You Learn Important News

Bad managers don’t trouble themselves to make sure that sensitive or potentially upsetting news is delivered carefully.

If they want to change your role or give you an unpleasant assignment, they’ll text you or send you a group email message, or just let you wait to hear the news through the grapevine.

The surest sign of a weenie boss is the inability to communicate effectively with other people. That’s something only humans do well!

Won’t or Can’t  Acknowledge your Contribution

It is physically impossible for a fearful manager to thank you for a job well done. They’ll say “That’s what your paycheck is for! Why should I thank you for doing your job?” instead!

Your Boss Disrupts Your Life Without a Care

The last sign your boss doesn’t respect you is that he or she thinks nothing of disrupting your personal life, like another boss of mine who told me two days before Christmas to schedule an all-day meeting with our management team, out of town and on the following day — Christmas Eve.

It was very snowy that year and I said “We might not be back at home for Christmas, and there’s nothing urgent to discuss – why not do a telephone conference instead?”

“Don’t worry about it,” said my fearful boss. “I only need the real business people in the meeting – not HR.”

I laughed out loud. Fearful managers always declare themselves!

I quit that job a month later.

You don’t have to waste your life or your brain cells working under someone who squashes your flame.

The world is big, and there are plenty of people who are dying to work with you. The first step is to decide you’re worth better than the treatment you’re getting now!

Image Credits: HikingArtist.com & Cthulhu

233 Hollywood Movies That Will Crack You Up!

Bored to death? Here is a list of 233 movies that will definitely give you a good laugh. Not everyone finds the same movies funny, but just hoping the movies below help you crack your funny bone. These are my personal recommendations and I hope you like the list as much as I do. But if you feel that there are funnier movies I have missed adding, do mention them in the comments section and I shall add them right away. Please note that the movies are not arranged based on their level of ‘funniness’, so you can scroll through the names and take help of the .gif images to find your humor match!

  1. Monty Python and the Holy Grail

 A comedic send-up of the grim circumstances of the Middle Ages as told through the story of King Arthur and framed by a modern-day murder investigation.

2. Anchorman

Hotshot television anchorman Ron Burgundy (Will Ferrell) welcomes upstart reporter Veronica Corningstone (Christina Applegate) into the male-dominated world of 1970s broadcast news — that is, until the talented female journalist begins to outshine Burgundy on air.

3. The Hangover Series

All three films chronicle a quartet of friends known as the “Wolfpack” who go on their road trip to attend a wedding reception. While all of the films depicts three of the four men on a mission to find their missing friend, the first two instalments focus on the aftermath of a night of debauchery before a wedding in Las Vegas and Bangkok, whereas the third and final film depicts a hostage situation and a road trip in lieu of a wedding or a bachelor party.

4. Shaun Of The Dead

Shaun (Simon Pegg) is a 30-something loser with a dull, easy existence. When he’s not working at the electronics store, he lives with his slovenly best friend, Ed (Nick Frost), in a small flat on the outskirts of London. The only unpredictable element in his life is his girlfriend, Liz (Kate Ashfield), who wishes desperately for Shaun to grow up and be a man. When the town is inexplicably overrun with zombies, Shaun must rise to the occasion and protect both Liz and his mother (Penelope Wilton).

5. Superbad

High-school seniors Seth (Jonah Hill) and Evan (Michael Cera) have high hopes for a graduation party: The co-dependent teens plan to score booze and babes so they can become part of the in-crowd, but separation anxiety and two bored police officers (Bill Hader, Seth Rogen) complicate the pair’s self-proclaimed mission.

6. The 40-Year-Old Virgin

Andy Stitzer (Steve Carell) is an amiable single guy who works at a big-box store. Living alone, 40-year-old Andy spends his free time playing video games and curating his action-figure collection. Despite his age, Andy has never had sex, so his friends, including the laid-back David (Paul Rudd), push Andy towards losing his virginity. While attempting to get over his awkwardness around female customers, Andy meets local shop owner Trish (Catherine Keener), and they begin a tentative romance.

7. Dodgeball

Average Joe’s Gym and its owner, Peter La Fleur (Vince Vaughn), are both down on their luck. A fancy competing gym called Globo-Gym, run by the maniacal health nut White Goodman (Ben Stiller), is about to put Average Joe’s out of business unless Peter can raise $50,000 to keep his mortgage. To save the gym, Peter and a ragtag group of Average Joe’s members and employees enter a dodgeball contest with a big cash prize. In response, White forms his own Globo-Gym team to rout the competition.

8. Happy Gilmore

All Happy Gilmore (Adam Sandler) has ever wanted is to be a professional hockey player. But he soon discovers he may actually have a talent for playing an entirely different sport: golf. When his grandmother (Frances Bay) learns she is about to lose her home, Happy joins a golf tournament to try and win enough money to buy it for her. With his powerful driving skills and foulmouthed attitude, Happy becomes an unlikely golf hero — much to the chagrin of the well-mannered golf professionals.

9. Spaceballs

In a distant galaxy, planet Spaceball has depleted its air supply, leaving its citizens reliant on a product called “Perri-Air.” In desperation, Spaceball’s leader President Skroob (Mel Brooks) orders the evil Dark Helmet (Rick Moranis) to kidnap Princess Vespa (Daphne Zuniga) of oxygen-rich Druidia and hold her hostage in exchange for air. But help arrives for the Princess in the form of renegade space pilot Lone Starr (Bill Pullman) and his half-man, half-dog partner, Barf (John Candy).

10. Ghostbusters

After the members of a team of scientists (Harold Ramis, Dan Aykroyd, Bill Murray) lose their cushy positions at a university in New York City, they decide to become “ghostbusters” to wage a high-tech battle with the supernatural for money. They stumble upon a gateway to another dimension, a doorway that will release evil upon the city. The Ghostbusters must now save New York from complete destruction.

11. Dumb & Dumber

Imbecilic best friends Lloyd Christmas (Jim Carrey) and Harry Dunne (Jeff Daniels) stumble across a suitcase full of money left behind in Harry’s car by Mary Swanson (Lauren Holly), who was on her way to the airport. The pair decide to go to Aspen, Colo., to return the money, unaware that it is connected to a kidnapping. As Harry and Lloyd — who has fallen in love with Mary — are pursued across the country by hired killers and police, they find both their friendship and their brains tested.

12. Austin Powers Series

The Austin Powers series is a series of three American action-comedy films – Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery (1997),Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me (1999) and Austin Powers in Goldmember (2002). The films were directed by Jay Roach; produced, written by and starring Mike Myers as both the title character and the main antagonist Dr. Evil; and distributed byNew Line Cinema. The franchise parodies numerous James Bond, Derek Flint, Jason King, and Matt Helm films, characters, and incorporates a myriad of other elements of popular culture as it follows a British spy’s quest to bring his nemesis to justice.

13. Airplane!

This spoof comedy takes shots at the slew of disaster movies that were released in the 70s. When the passengers and crew of a jet are incapacitated due to food poisoning, a rogue pilot with a drinking problem must cooperate with his ex-girlfriend turned stewardess to bring the plane to a safe landing.

14. Old School

After discovering his girlfriend (Juliette Lewis) has been participating in group sex, attorney Mitch (Luke Wilson) feels his world come undone. He moves into a new place, which happens to be near a college campus, and tries to get his life back together. Two of his best friends, Frank (Will Ferrell) and Beanie (Vince Vaughn), start hanging out at Mitch’s house, eventually turning the place into a wild party pad, much to the ire of the college’s dean, “Cheese” Pritchard (Jeremy Piven).

15. Step Brothers

Brennan Huff (Will Ferrell) and Dale Doback (John C. Reilly) have one thing in common: they are both lazy, unemployed leeches who still live with their parents. When Brennan’s mother and Dale’s father marry and move in together, it turns the overgrown boys’ world upside down. Their insane rivalry and narcissism pull the new family apart, forcing them to work together to reunite their parents.

16. The Big Lebowski

Jeff Bridges plays Jeff Lebowski who insists on being called “the Dude,” a laid-back, easygoing burnout who happens to have the same name as a millionaire whose wife owes a lot of dangerous people a whole bunch of money — resulting in the Dude having his rug soiled, sending him spiraling into the Los Angeles underworld.

17. Hot Fuzz

As a former London constable, Nicholas Angel (Simon Pegg) finds if difficult to adapt to his new assignment in the sleepy British village of Sandford. Not only does he miss the excitement of the big city, but he also has a well-meaning oaf (Nick Frost) for a partner. However, when a series of grisly accidents rocks Sandford, Nick smells something rotten in the idyllic village.

18. South Park Bigger, Longer & Uncut

In this feature film based on the hit animated series, the third graders of South Park sneak into an R-rated film by ultra-vulgar Canadian television personalities Terrance (Matt Stone) and Phillip (Trey Parker), and emerge with expanded vocabularies that leave their parents and teachers scandalized. When outraged Americans try to censor the film, the controversy becomes a call to war with Canada, and Terrance and Phillip end up on death row — with only the kids left to save them.

19. Wayne’s World

A big screen spin-off of the “Saturday Night Live” skit. Rob Lowe plays a producer that wants to take the public access “Wayne’s World” to the world of commercial television. Wayne (Mike Myers) and Garth (Dana Carvey) battle to save their show and Wayne’s girlfriend from Lowe.

20. Zoolander

Propelled to the top of the fashion world by a photogenic gaze he calls “Blue Steel,” dimwitted male model Derek Zoolander (Ben Stiller) thinks he’s got a fourth consecutive win as Male Model of the Year in the bag. But, when his rival, Hansel (Owen Wilson), unexpectedly takes the crown, Derek is crushed. He becomes easy prey for fashion designer Jacobim Mugatu (Will Ferrell), who signs Derek to star in his “Derelicte” fashion show, then brainwashes him to kill Malaysia’s prime minister.

21. Tropic Thunder

Tugg Speedman (Ben Stiller), pampered action superstar, sets out for Southeast Asia to take part in the biggest, most-expensive war movie produced, but soon after filming begins, he and his co-stars, Oscar-winner Kirk Lazarus (Robert Downey Jr.), comic Jeff Portnoy (Jack Black) and the rest of the crew, must become real soldiers when fighting breaks out in that part of the jungle.

22. Ace Ventura Series

Ace Ventura is an American comedy film series consisting of three entries, starring Jim Carrey as the titular character, Ace Ventura, a private investigator and self-proclaimed “pet detective.” The first film, Ace Ventura: Pet Detective, was released in 1994 after six years of development, with a sequel, Ace Ventura: When Nature Calls, released in 1995. In 2009, a direct-to-video sequel, Ace Ventura, Jr.: Pet Detective, was released. An animated series was also produced and ran for three seasons. The first two films were widely successful and have a cult following, though the third was released to mostly negative reviews.

23. Office Space

Corporate drone Peter Gibbons (Ron Livingston) hates his soul-killing job at software company Initech. While undergoing hypnotherapy, Peter is left in a blissful state when his therapist dies in the middle of their session. He refuses to work overtime, plays games at his desk and unintentionally charms two consultants into putting him on the management fast-track. When Peter’s friends learn they’re about to be downsized, they hatch a revenge plot against the company inspired by “Superman III.”

24. Pineapple Express

Stoner Dale Denton’s (Seth Rogen) enjoyment of a rare strain of marijuana may prove fatal when he drops his roach in a panic after witnessing a murder. Upon learning that the fancy weed can be traced back to them, Dale and his dealer (James Franco) go on the lam, with a dangerous drug lord (Gary Cole) and crooked cop (Rosie Perez) hot on their heels.

25. Super Troopers

Always looking for action, five over-enthusiastic but under-stimulated Vermont State Troopers raise hell on the highway, keeping motorists anxiously looking in their rear-view mirrors. Between an ongoing feud with the local cops over whose you-know-what is bigger, and the state government wanting to shut them down, the “Super Troopers” find themselves precariously and hilariously heading toward calamity as they try to avoid extinction.

26. Wedding Crashers

Jeremy (Vince Vaughn) and John (Owen Wilson) are divorce mediators who spend their free time crashing wedding receptions. For the irrepressible duo, there are few better ways to drink for free and bed vulnerable women. So when Secretary of the Treasury William Cleary (Christopher Walken) announces the wedding of his daughter, the pair make it their mission to crash the high-profile event. But their game hits a bump in the road when John locks eyes with bridesmaid Claire (Rachel McAdams).

27. Caddyshack

Danny Noonan (Michael O’Keefe), a teen down on his luck, works as a caddy at the snob-infested Bushwood Country Club to raise money for his college education. In an attempt to gain votes for a college scholarship reserved for caddies, Noonan volunteers to caddy for a prominent and influential club member (Ted Knight). Meanwhile, Danny struggles to prepare for the high pressure Caddy Day golf tournament while absorbing New Age advice from wealthy golf guru Ty Webb (Chevy Chase).

28. Ferris Bueller’s Day Off

Ferris Bueller (Matthew Broderick) has an uncanny skill at cutting classes and getting away with it. Intending to make one last duck-out before graduation, Ferris calls in sick, “borrows” a Ferrari, and embarks on a one-day journey through the streets of Chicago. On Ferris’ trail is high school principal Rooney (Jeffrey Jones), determined to catch him in the act.

29. Talladega Nights

NASCAR superstar Ricky Bobby (Will Ferrell) is at the top of his game; adored by fans, a trophy wife by his side, and incredible wealth. But Ricky loses it all when French Formula One champion Jean Girard (Sacha Baron Cohen) roars onto the scene. Ricky, with the help of his ruthless father, must pull himself out of the depths of despair and restore his honor on the racetrack.

30. Robin Hood: Men in Tights

Crusading nobleman Robin of Loxley (Cary Elwes) escapes from prison in Jerusalem and returns home to find that the evil Prince John (Richard Lewis) has confiscated his family estate and is abusing the citizenry. Robin enlists his blind attendant, Blinkin (Mark Blankfield), his friend Will Scarlett O‘Hara (Matthew Porretta) and Little John (Eric Allan Kramer) to help regain his home. Robin also hopes to woo the beautiful Maid Marian (Amy Yasbeck), but her chastity belt may prove a challenge.

31. National Lampoon’s Animal House

When they arrive at college, socially inept freshmen Larry (Tom Hulce) and Kent (Stephen Furst) attempt to pledge the snooty Omega Theta Pi House, but are summarily rejected. Lowering their standards, they try at the notoriously rowdy Delta Tau Chi House, and get in. The trouble is, the college dean (John Vernon) has it in for the Deltas. He has put them on “Double Secret Probation” and secretly assigned Omega’s president (James Daughton) the task of having their charter revoked.

32. Harold & Kumar Go to White Castle

Nerdy accountant Harold (John Cho) and his irrepressible friend, Kumar (Kal Penn), get stoned watching television and find themselves utterly bewitched by a commercial for White Castle. Convinced there must be one nearby, the two set out on a late-night odyssey that takes them deep into New Jersey. Somehow, the boys manage to run afoul of rednecks, cops and even a car-stealing Neil Patrick Harris before getting anywhere near their beloved sliders.

33. Monty Python’s Life of Brian

Brian Cohen (Graham Chapman) is an average young Jewish man, but through a series of ridiculous events, he gains a reputation as the Messiah. When he’s not dodging his followers or being scolded by his shrill mother (Terry Jones), the hapless Brian has to contend with the pompous Pontius Pilate (Michael Palin) and acronym-obsessed members of a separatist movement. Rife with Monty Python’s signature absurdity, the tale finds Brian’s life paralleling Biblical lore, albeit with many more laughs.

34. The Blue Brothers

After his release from prison, Jake (John Belushi) reunites with his brother, Elwood (Dan Aykroyd) — collectively known as the “Blues Brothers.” Jake’s first task is to save the orphanage the brothers grew up in from closing, by raising $5,000 to pay back taxes. The two are convinced they can earn the money by getting their old band back together. However, after playing several gigs and making a few enemies, including the police, the brothers face daunting odds to deliver the money on time.

35. Knocked Up

Rising journalist Alison Scott (Katherine Heigl) hits a serious bump in the road after a one-night stand with irresponsible slacker Ben Stone (Seth Rogen) results in pregnancy. Rather than raise the baby on her own, she decides to give Ben a chance to prove he is father material. However, he is unsure if he is ready to be a parent, and both wonder if they would be compatible lifetime partners.

36. Billy Madison

Man-child Billy Madison (Adam Sandler) has been a spoiled rich kid all his life, and spends his days drinking and partying. When his father, hotel magnate Brian (Darren McGavin), becomes fed up with his son’s irresponsible ways, he issues an ultimatum. Since Billy passed all his schooling thanks to his father’s influence and bribes, he must retake and pass every grade in 24 weeks. Otherwise, the business will be turned over to Brian’s conniving associate, Eric (Bradley Whitford).

37. Liar Liar

Conniving attorney Fletcher Reede (Jim Carrey) is an ace in the courtroom, but his dishonesty and devotion to work ruin his relationships. His wife, Audrey (Maura Tierney), has left him for a more dependable man, and Fletcher often breaks the commitments he makes to his beloved son, Max (Justin Cooper). When Max wishes his dad would stop lying for 24 hours, Fletcher suddenly finds that he can only speak the truth — on the day his career-deciding court case has to be won.

38. Team America: World Police

When North Korean ruler Kim Jong-il (Trey Parker) orchestrates a global terrorist plot, it’s up to the heavily armed marionettes of the highly specialized Team America unit to stop his dastardly scheme. The group, which includes the thespian-averse technology expert Chris (Matt Stone), not only has to face off against Jong-il, but they must also contend with F.A.G., the Film Actors Guild, a cadre of Hollywood liberals at odds with Team America’s “policing the world” tactics.

39. Groundhog Day

Phil (Bill Murray), a weatherman, is out to cover the annual emergence of the groundhog from its hole. He gets caught in a blizzard that he didn’t predict and finds himself trapped in a time warp. He is doomed to relive the same day over and over again until he gets it right.

40. Forgetting Sarah Marshall

Struggling musician Peter Bretter (Jason Segel) is better-known as the boyfriend of TV star Sarah Marshall (Kristen Bell). After she unceremoniously dumps him, he feels lost and alone but makes a last-ditch bid to get over it by going to Hawaii. However, she and her new boyfriend (Russell Brand) are there in the same hotel.

41. Role Models

After salesmen Danny (Paul Rudd) and Wheeler (Seann William Scott) trash a company truck, the court gives them a choice: jail time or community service in a mentoring program. Thinking to take the easy way out, the two overgrown adolescents find themselves paired with a teenager (Christopher Mintz-Plasse), who is experiencing the pangs of first love, and a foul-mouthed fifth-grader (Bobb’e J. Thompson), who needs an attitude adjustment.

42. Blazing Saddles

In this satirical take on Westerns, crafty railroad worker Bart (Cleavon Little) becomes the first black sheriff of Rock Ridge, a frontier town about to be destroyed in order to make way for a new railroad. Initially, the people of Rock Ridge harbor a racial bias toward their new leader. However, they warm to him after realizing that Bart and his perpetually drunk gunfighter friend (Gene Wilder) are the only defense against a wave of thugs sent to rid the town of its population.

43. Borat

Outrageous situations occur when Borat, a popular reporter (Sacha Baron Cohen) from Kazakhstan, comes to the United States to film a documentary on what makes America a great nation. Along the way, he manages to offend just about everyone he meets, fall in love with actress Pamela Anderson, and set forth on a cross-country journey to make her his wife.

44. Men In Black

They are the best-kept secret in the universe. Working for a highly funded yet unofficial government agency, Kay (Tommy Lee Jones) and Jay (Will Smith) are the Men in Black, providers of immigration services and regulators of all things alien on Earth. While investigating a series of unregistered close encounters, the MIB agents uncover the deadly plot of an intergalactic terrorist who is on a mission to assassinate two ambassadors from opposing galaxies currently in residence in New York City.

45. Tommy Boy

After his beloved father (Brian Dennehy) dies, dimwitted Tommy Callahan (Chris Farley) inherits a near-bankrupt automobile parts factory in Sandusky, Ohio. His brand new stepmother, Beverly (Bo Derek), wants to cash out and close, but Tommy’s sentimental attachment to his father’s employees spurs him to make one last-ditch effort to find someone who will buy their products. With his father’s tightly wound assistant, Richard (David Spade), in tow, Tommy hits the road to scare up some new clients.

46. The Mask

When timid bank clerk Stanley Ipkiss (Jim Carrey) discovers a magical mask containing the spirit of the Norse god Loki, his entire life changes. While wearing the mask, Ipkiss becomes a supernatural playboy exuding charm and confidence which allows him to catch the eye of local nightclub singer Tina Carlyle (Cameron Diaz). Unfortunately, under the mask’s influence, Ipkiss also robs a bank, which angers junior crime lord Dorian Tyrell (Peter Greene), whose goons get blamed for the heist.

47. I Love You, Man

As his wedding day approaches, Peter Klaven (Paul Rudd) realizes he has no one to act as his best man. Through a series of “man-dates,” he finds Sydney Fife (Jason Segel), and the pair become instant friends. But as Peter’s “bro-mance” with Sydney grows stronger, it threatens his relationship with his fiancee (Rashida Jones), forcing Peter to make a choice.

48. Big Daddy

Thirty-two-year-old Sonny Koufax (Adam Sandler) has spent his whole life avoiding responsibility. But when his girlfriend dumps him for an older man, he’s got to find a way to prove he’s ready to grow up. In a desperate last-ditch effort, Sonny adopts 5-year-old Julian (Dylan Sprouse), (Cole Sprouse) to impress her. She’s not impressed and he can’t return the kid. Uh-oh for Sonny!

49. The Other Guys

Unlike their heroic counterparts on the force, desk-bound NYPD detectives Gamble (Will Ferrell) and Hoitz (Mark Wahlberg) garner no headlines as they work day to day. Gamble relishes his job as a paper pusher, but Hoitz is itching to get back on the street and make a name for himself. When a seemingly minor case turns out to be a big deal, the two cops get the opportunity to finally prove to their comrades that they have the right stuff.

50. The Simpsons Movie

The combination of Homer (Dan Castellaneta), his new pet pig, and a leaky silo full of excrement triggers a disaster that threatens not just Springfield but the entire world. An angry mob descends on the Simpson home, splitting the family. With Earth’s fate in the balance, Homer sets out on a quest for redemption in order to save the world and earn Marge’s (Julie Kavner) forgiveness.

51. Meet The Parents

Everything that can possibly go wrong for groom-to-be Greg Focker (Ben Stiller) does. The problems begin with Greg’s disastrous first meeting with his girlfriend’s family — most notably her intimidating father Jack Byrnes (Robert De Niro) and it’s all downhill from there.

52. Clerks

Dante (Brian O’Halloran) is called in to cover a shift at his New Jersey convenience store on his day off. His friend Randal (Jeff Anderson) helps him pass the time, neglecting his video-store customers next door to hang out in the Quick Stop. The uneventful day is disrupted by news that one of Dante’s ex-girlfriends has died. After attending her memorial service, Dante muses over staying with current girlfriend Veronica (Marilyn Ghigliotti) or reuniting with ex Caitlin (Lisa Spoonhauer).

53. Kick-Ass

Dave Lizewski is an unnoticed high school student and comic book fan who one day decides to become a super-hero, even though he has no powers, training or meaningful reason to do so.

54. There’s Something About Mary

Ted’s (Ben Stiller) dream prom date with Mary (Cameron Diaz) never happens due to an embarrassing injury at her home. Years later, Ted hires Pat Healy (Matt Dillon) to track down Mary so he can reconnect with her. Pat lies to Ted about Mary and he finds out everything he can about her to trick her into dating him. Ted travels to meet Mary and has to weave through the web of lies that Pat and Mary’s friend Tucker (Lee Evans) have woven to try and win her over.

55. Home Alone Series

When bratty 8-year-old Kevin McCallister (Macaulay Culkin) acts out the night before a family trip to Paris, his mother (Catherine O’Hara) makes him sleep in the attic. After the McCallisters mistakenly leave for the airport without Kevin, he awakens to an empty house and assumes his wish to have no family has come true. But his excitement sours when he realizes that two con men (Joe Pesci, Daniel Stern) plan to rob the McCallister residence, and that he alone must protect the family home.

56. Scary Movie

Scary Movie is a 2000 horror comedy spoof film directed by Keenen Ivory Wayans. It is an American dark comedy that heavily parodies the horror, slasher, and mystery genres. Several mid- and late-’90s films and TV shows are spoofed, especially Scream, along with I Know What You Did Last Summer, Buffy the Vampire Slayer, The Sixth Sense, The Usual Suspects, The Matrix, The Blair Witch Project, and Dawson’s Creek.

57. Napoleon Dynamite

In small-town Preston, Idaho, awkward teen Napoleon Dynamite (Jon Heder) has trouble fitting in. After his grandmother is injured in an accident, his life is made even worse when his strangely nostalgic uncle, Rico (Jon Gries), shows up to keep an eye on him. With no safe haven at home or at school, Napoleon befriends the new kid, Pedro (Efren Ramirez), a morose Hispanic boy who speaks little English. Together the two launch a campaign to run for class president.

58. Blades Of Glory

Figure skaters Chazz Michael Michaels (Will Ferrell) and Jimmy MacElroy (Jon Heder) take their intense rivalry too far during the Olympic Winter Games in Salt Lake City; both are banned from competition after a nasty brawl. After several years out of the public eye and hungry for glory, the men decide to set aside their feud and exploit a loophole that allows them to compete as a pair.

59. Get Him to the Greek

An ambitious executive at a record company, Aaron Green (Jonah Hill) gets what looks like an easy assignment: He must escort British rock legend Aldous Snow (Russell Brand) to L.A.’s Greek Theatre for the first stop on a lucrative comeback-concert tour. Snow, however, has different plans. Learning his true love is in California, the rocker vows to win her back before starting the tour, forcing Aaron to pull out all the stops to get Snow on stage in time.

60. Young Frankenstein

Respected medical lecturer Dr. Frederick Frankenstein (Gene Wilder) learns that he has inherited his infamous grandfather’s estate in Transylvania. Arriving at the castle, Dr. Frankenstein soon begins to recreate his grandfather’s experiments with the help of servants Igor (Marty Feldman), Inga (Teri Garr) and the fearsome Frau Blücher (Cloris Leachman). After he creates his own monster (Peter Boyle), new complications ensue with the arrival of the doctor’s fiancée, Elizabeth (Madeline Kahn).

61. Hot Tub Time Machine

Four pals are stuck in a rut in adulthood: Adam (John Cusack) has just been dumped, Lou (Rob Corddry) is a hopeless party animal, Craig (Craig Robinson) is a henpecked husband, and Jacob (Clark Duke) does nothing but play video games in his basement. But they get a chance to brighten their future by changing their past after a night of heavy drinking in a ski-resort hot tub results in their waking up in 1986.

When Jay and Silent Bob learn that a “Bluntman and Chronic” movie is being made featuring their comic book counterparts, they drool at the thought of fat movie checks rolling in. But when the pair find that there won’t be any royalties coming their way, they set out to sabotage the flick at all costs.

63. Jackass: The Movie

In this comedic documentary, Johnny Knoxville heads a crew of stuntmen, skateboarders and all-around lunatics as they prank, embarrass and torture each other in the name of fun. The antics range from childlike — the boys don panda suits for a romp through Tokyo — to grotesque and life-threatening. A golf cart demolition derby turns downright dangerous. Live gators nearly chomp maniac Steve-O. Filmmaker Spike Jonze and Knoxville, in heavy makeup, test the public’s patience for the elderly.

64. Zack and Miri Make a Porno

Lifelong friends and now roommates, Zack (Seth Rogen) and Miri (Elizabeth Banks) are buried under a mountain of debt. When the electricity is turned off, they realize that desperate times call for desperate measures. They decide to make an adult film to raise some cash. Though they swear that having sex will not damage their friendship, their business proposition quickly turns into something much more.

65. Euro Trip

After a brutal breakup at a high-school graduation party, lovelorn Ohio teen Scott Thomas (Scott Mechlowicz) goes on a quest across Europe to find his sexy German pen pal, Mieke (Jessica Boehrs). Joining him are his brainless buddy (Jacob Pitts) and a pair of twins (Travis Wester, Michelle Trachtenberg) they meet up with in Paris. Scott’s quest does not turn out to be easy, however, and the backpackers become embroiled in many farcical situations as they hop from country to country.

66. Rush Hour 1-3

In the original movie, two cops team up to get back a kidnapped daughter. In the second part, Carter and Lee head to Hong Kong for vacation, but become embroiled in a counterfeit money scam. And in the third part, after an attempted assassination on Ambassador Han, Lee and Carter head to Paris to protect a French woman with knowledge of the Triads’ secret leaders.

67. Bill and Ted’s Excellent Adventure

Bill (Alex Winter) and Ted (Keanu Reeves) are high school buddies starting a band. However, they are about to fail their history class, which means Ted would be sent to military school. They receive help from Rufus (George Carlin), a traveler from a future where their band is the foundation for a perfect society. With the use of Rufus’ time machine, Bill and Ted travel to various points in history, returning with important figures to help them complete their final history presentation.

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68. Scott Pilgrim vs. the World

As bass guitarist for a garage-rock band, Scott Pilgrim (Michael Cera) has never had trouble getting a girlfriend; usually, the problem is getting rid of them. But when Ramona Flowers (Mary Elizabeth Winstead) skates into his heart, he finds she has the most troublesome baggage of all: an army of ex-boyfriends who will stop at nothing to eliminate him from her list of suitors.

69. Me, Myself and Irene

Meet Charlie Baileygates, a 17-year veteran of the Rhode Island police force. Charlie is mild-mannered, hard-working, always helpful, and a devoted and loving father to three sons. Unfortunately, Charlie has Split Personality Disorder, and when he runs out of his medication … Meet Hank Baileygates (Jim Carrey), Charlie’s hyper-aggressive alter-ego. Hank’s got a filthy mouth, drinks like a fish, breaks skulls and loves dirty, dirty sex.

70. Mrs. Doubtfire

Troubled that he has little access to his children, divorced Daniel Hillard (Robin Williams) hatches an elaborate plan. With help from his creative brother Frank (Harvey Fierstein), he dresses as an older British woman and convinces his ex-wife, Miranda (Sally Field), to hire him as a nanny. “Mrs. Doubtfire” wins over the children and helps Daniel become a better parent — but when both Daniel and his nanny persona must meet different parties at the same restaurant, his secrets may be exposed.

71. Planes, Trains & Automobiles

Easily excitable Neal Page (Steve Martin) is somewhat of a control freak. Trying to get home to Chicago to spend Thanksgiving with his wife (Laila Robbins) and kids, his flight is rerouted to a distant city in Kansas because of a freak snowstorm, and his sanity begins to fray. Worse yet, he is forced to bunk up with talkative Del Griffith (John Candy), whom he finds extremely annoying. Together they must overcome the insanity of holiday travel to reach their intended destination.

After receiving his latest college rejection letter, senior Bartleby Gaines devises a novel way to fool everyone into thinking he is college-bound: Open his own university. Bartleby and his similarly stymied friends take over an abandoned building, create a fake Web site, hire a friend’s uncle to pose as the dean, and — presto — a school is born. However, they do their jobs too well, and soon many other rejects try to gain admittance to the nonexistent South Harmon Institute of Technology.

73. Beerfest

Two brothers (Erik Stolhanske, Paul Soter) from America happen upon a secret and centuries-old beer-games competition during a visit to Germany’s Oktoberfest. After losing badly, they return to America, assemble an impressive team of brew-lovers and return to Germany for a rematch.

74. Beverly Hills Cop

After his childhood buddy is murdered while visiting Detroit, rebellious cop Axel Foley (Eddie Murphy) follows the leads to Beverly Hills, Calif., under the auspices of a vacation. He checks in with old friend Jenny Summers (Lisa Eilbacher) and starts to believe her boss, art dealer Victor Maitland (Steven Berkoff), might somehow be involved in the murder. However, Lt. Bogomil (Ronny Cox) of the Beverly Hills Police Department does not trust Foley, and hinders his search for evidence.

75. Christmas Vacation

As the holidays approach, Clark Griswold (Chevy Chase) wants to have a perfect family Christmas, so he pesters his wife, Ellen (Beverly D’Angelo), and children, as he tries to make sure everything is in line, including the tree and house decorations. However, things go awry quickly. His hick cousin, Eddie (Randy Quaid), and his family show up unplanned and start living in their camper on the Griswold property. Even worse, Clark’s employers renege on the holiday bonus he needs.

76. History of the World: Part I

Human history is traced through a series of vignettes, beginning with cavemen awestruck by their own magnificence. Then Moses (Mel Brooks) receives the tablets containing the “15” commandments, and Emperor Nero (Dom DeLuise) presides over a madcap Rome with his wife, Nympho (Madeline Kahn). Jumping ahead, the Spanish Inquisition softens repression with song and dance, and a few centuries later Madame Defarge (Cloris Leachman) is fomenting revolution in France.

77. Beetlejuice

After Barbara (Geena Davis) and Adam Maitland (Alec Baldwin) die in a car accident, they find themselves stuck haunting their country residence, unable to leave the house. When the unbearable Deetzes (Catherine O’Hara, Jeffrey Jones) and teen daughter Lydia (Winona Ryder) buy the home, the Maitlands attempt to scare them away without success. Their efforts attract Beetlejuice (Michael Keaton), a rambunctious spirit whose “help” quickly becomes dangerous for the Maitlands and innocent Lydia.

78. Dogma

Two fallen angels who were ejected from paradise find themselves banned in Wisconsin. They are now headed for New Jersey where they find a loophole that can get them back into heaven. The only catch is that it will destroy humanity. A group bands together to stop them.

79. Dude, Where’s My Car?

Last night, two party-hearty Dudes had an unbelievably sweet time. Too bad, they can’t remember a thing, including where they parked their car. So, the Dudes embark on a mission: retrace their steps to find out what they did last night hoping it will lead them to the missing car. Little do the Dudes know, they’re in for the ride of their lives.

80. Roadtrip

Josh (Breckin Meyer) videotapes his affair with another girl and accidentally mails it to his girlfriend. Discovering the mistake, he tows two of his college buddies — and one not-so-eager kid who happens to own the car — on a raucous 1,800-mile road trip from Ithaca, N.Y., to Austin, Texas, to save his lifelong romance.

81. Coming to America 

Prince Akeem (Eddie Murphy) is the prince of a wealthy African country and wants for nothing, except a wife who will love him in spite of his title. To escape an arranged marriage, Akeem flees to America accompanied by his persnickety sidekick, Semmi (Arsenio Hall), to find his queen. Disguised as a foreign student working in fast food, he romances Lisa (Shari Headley), but struggles with revealing his true identity to her and his marital intentions to his king father (James Earl Jones).

82. Van Wilder

He’s the biggest man on campus. He’s the boss with the sauce. He’s the guy all the girls want and all the guys want to be. ‘Cause in the collegiate jungle, there can be only one king … and at Coolidge College it’s Van Wilder. In the grand tradition of comedy classics like “National Lampoon’s Animal House” and “National Lampoon’s Vacation,” “National Lampoon’s Van Wilder” will charm you, move you and gross you out.

83. Good Morning Vietnam

Radio funny man Adrian Cronauer (Robin Williams) is sent to Vietnam to bring a little comedy back into the lives of the soldiers. After setting up shop, Cronauer delights the G.I.s but shocks his superior officer, Sergeant Major Dickerson (J.T. Walsh), with his irreverent take on the war. While Dickerson attempts to censor Cronauer’s broadcasts, Cronauer pursues a relationship with a Vietnamese girl named Trinh (Chintara Sukapatana), who shows him the horrors of war first-hand.

84. The Princess Bride

A fairy tale adventure about a beautiful young woman and her one true love. He must find her after a long separation and save her. They must battle the evils of the mythical kingdom of Florin to be reunited with each other. Based on the William Goldman novel “The Princess Bride” which earned its own loyal audience.

85. Half Baked

When a member of their crew gets arrested for killing a New York City police horse by feeding it junk food, three slackin’ stoners are forced to get off their butts and raise bail by selling pot stolen from a pharmaceutical lab. It’s a risky plan but, hey, these are stand-up guys who would do anything to help out a friend in need.

86. The Jerk

Navin (Steve Martin) believes he was born a poor black child in Mississippi. He is, however, actually white. Upon figuring this out, he heads north to St. Louis to find himself. After landing a job at a gas station, Navin is excited to discover his name printed in the new phone book. This ratification of his existence leads him from one misadventure to another — as he invents gadgets, dodges bullets, joins the carnival and seeks love in the arms of beautiful Marie (Bernadette Peters).

87. Mr. Deeds

88. Little Miss Sunshine

The Hoover family — a man (Greg Kinnear), his wife (Toni Collette), an uncle (Steve Carell), a brother (Paul Dano) and a grandfather (Alan Arkin) — puts the fun back in dysfunctional by piling into a VW bus and heading to California to support a daughter (Abigail Breslin) in her bid to win the Little Miss Sunshine Contest. The sanity of everyone involved is stretched to the limit as the group’s quirks cause epic problems as they travel along their interstate route.

89. Trading Places

Upper-crust executive Louis Winthorpe III (Dan Aykroyd) and down-and-out hustler Billy Ray Valentine (Eddie Murphy) are the subjects of a bet by successful brokers Mortimer (Don Ameche) and Randolph Duke (Ralph Bellamy). An employee of the Dukes, Winthorpe is framed by the brothers for a crime he didn’t commit, with the siblings then installing the street-smart Valentine in his position. When Winthorpe and Valentine uncover the scheme, they set out to turn the tables on the Dukes.

90. Hot Rod

For Rod Kimball (Andy Samberg), performing stunts is a way of life, even though he is rather accident-prone. Poor Rod cannot even get any respect from his stepfather, Frank (Ian McShane), who beats him up in weekly sparring matches. When Frank falls ill, Rod devises his most outrageous stunt yet to raise money for Frank’s operation — and then Rod will kick Frank’s butt.

91. Bean Movie & Mr. Bean’s Holiday

At the Royal National Gallery in London, the bumbling Mr. Bean (Rowan Atkinson) is a guard with good intentions who always seems to destroy anything he touches. Unless, of course, he’s sleeping on the job. With the chairman (John Mills) blocking Bean’s firing, the board decides to send him to a Los Angeles art gallery under false credentials. When Bean arrives, his chaos-causing ways are as sharp as ever, and curator David Langley (Peter MacNicol) has the unenviable task of keeping Bean in line.

When London’s wet weather becomes too much to bear, pratfall-prone Mr. Bean (Rowan Atkinson) heads to the French Riviera for some fun in the sun. As usual, his plans do not go smoothly, and he is mistaken for both a kidnapper and an award-winning filmmaker when he arrives with a Romanian director’s son and an aspiring actress in tow.

92. Bruce Almighty

Bruce Nolan’s (Jim Carrey) career in TV has been stalled for a while, and when he’s passed over for a coveted anchorman position, he loses it, complaining that God is treating him poorly. Soon after, God (Morgan Freeman) actually contacts Bruce and offers him all of his powers if he thinks he can do a better job. Bruce accepts and goes on a spree, using his new-found abilities for selfish, personal use until he realizes that the prayers of the world are going unanswered.

93. Kung Fu Panda Series

Po the panda (Jack Black) works in his family’s noodle shop and dreams of becoming a kung-fu master. His dream becomes a reality when, unexpectedly, he must fulfill an ancient prophecy and study the skills with his idols, the Furious Five. Po needs all the wisdom, strength and ability he can muster to protect his people from an evil snow leopard.

94. Pee Wee’s Big Adventure

Pee-wee Herman (Paul Reubens), an eccentric child-like man, loves his red bicycle and will not sell it to his envious neighbor, Francis (Mark Holton). While Pee-wee visits his friend Dottie (Elizabeth Daily), the bike is stolen. Thinking his bike is at the Alamo, Pee-wee sets off on a trip, where he meets many remarkable people, including waitress Simone (Diane Salinger) and a motorcycle gang. Eventually, Pee-wee discovers that his bike is being used in a movie and tries to recover it.

When a beautiful first-grade teacher (Olivia Williams) arrives at a prep school, she soon attracts the attention of an ambitious teenager named Max (Jason Schwartzman), who quickly falls in love with her. Max turns to the father (Bill Murray) of two of his schoolmates for advice on how to woo the teacher. However, the situation soon gets complicated when Max’s new friend becomes involved with her, setting the two pals against one another in a war for her attention.

96. Sister Act

When lively lounge singer Deloris Van Cartier (Whoopi Goldberg) sees her mobster beau, Vince LaRocca (Harvey Keitel), commit murder, she is relocated for her protection. Set up in the guise of a nun in a California convent, Deloris proceeds to upend the quiet lives of the resident sisters. In an effort to keep her out of trouble, they assign Deloris to the convent’s choir, an ensemble that she soon turns into a vibrant and soulful act that gains widespread attention.

97. Carry On Screaming

A British sleuth (Harry H. Corbett) and his sidekick find monsters at the mansion of a mad doctor (Kenneth Williams) and his sister (Fenella Fielding).

98. Brazil

Low-level bureaucrat Sam Lowry (Jonathan Pryce) escapes the monotony of his day-to-day life through a recurring daydream of himself as a virtuous hero saving a beautiful damsel. Investigating a case that led to the wrongful arrest and eventual death of an innocent man instead of wanted terrorist Harry Tuttle (Robert De Niro), he meets the woman from his daydream (Kim Greist), and in trying to help her gets caught in a web of mistaken identities, mindless bureaucracy and lies.

99. Swingers

A transplanted New Yorker attempting to acclimate to Los Angeles, Mike Peters (Jon Favreau), is struggling to both boost his comedy career and get over his last relationship. A self-proclaimed master of seduction, Mike’s buddy, Trent Walker (Vince Vaughn), tries to show him how to make connections and get the attention of women. Slowly moving toward regaining his confidence, Mike meets the gorgeous and down-to-earth Lorraine (Heather Graham), sparking a welcome new romance.

100. BASEketball

When slacker friends Joe Cooper (Trey Parker) and Doug Remer (Matt Stone) are challenged to a pickup basketball game against some jocks, they counter by proposing to play a game they learned called “BASEketball,” which combines basketball and baseball. In reality, they are improvising all of the rules, but somehow the sport becomes a hit. A promoter (Ernest Borgnine) forms a popular league, but after his death a rival owner (Robert Vaughn) wants to change the rules to increase profits.

101. The Grown ups

The death of their childhood basketball coach leads to a reunion for some old friends (Adam Sandler, Kevin James, Chris Rock), who gather at the site of a championship celebration years earlier. Picking up where they left off, the buddies — with wives and children in tow — discover why age does not, necessarily, equal maturity.

102. The Pink Panther Strikes Again

Just released from a mental hospital, Charles Dreyfus (Herbert Lom) intends to off Inspector Clouseau (Peter Sellers), a former underling whose blundering drove the lawman around the bend. Dreyfus captures a scientist, ordering him to create a weapon that will destroy the planet, and threatens world leaders with annihilation unless they hand over his nemesis. Meanwhile, Clouseau goes to England to look for the vanished scientist, and his obliviousness turns out to be an asset.

103. Anna Hall

Alvy Singer, a forty year old twice divorced, neurotic, intellectual Jewish New York stand-up comic, reflects on the demise of his latest relationship, to Annie Hall, an insecure, flighty, Midwestern WASP aspiring nightclub singer. Unlike his previous relationships, Alvy believed he may have worked out all the issues in his life through fifteen years of therapy to make this relationship with Annie last, among those issues being not wanting to date any woman that would want to date him, and thus subconsciously pushing those women away. Alvy not only reviews the many ups and many downs of their relationship, but also reviews the many facets of his makeup that led to him starting to date Annie.

104. Bruno

Blacklisted after crashing a runway presentation, a flamboyant Austrian fashionista travels to the United States, where he hopes to launch a celebrity interview show. In his quest for superstardom, Brüno (Sacha Baron Cohen) sparks one outrageous situation after another, pushing the boundaries of decorum to the breaking point.

105. Deuce Bigalow Male Gigalo

Deuce Bigalow (Rob Schneider) is a less than attractive, down on his luck aquarium cleaner. One day he wrecks the house of a gigolo and needs quick money to repair it. The only way he can make it is to become a gigolo himself, taking on an unusual mix of female clients. He encounters a couple of problems, though. He falls in love with one of his unusual clients, and a sleazy police officer is hot on his trail.

106. Freddy Got Fingered

Gord Brody (Tom Green) is a struggling cartoonist trying to pitch an animated show to Hollywood executives. When he fails, he returns to his hometown with no choice but to live with his parents and younger brother, Freddy (Eddie Kaye Thomas). His father (Rip Torn) doesn’t approve of Gord’s career path, and pressures him to gain independence. As father and son exchange barbs, Gord comes up with a lie that changes everything: He claims his dad is molesting Freddy, leading to drastic consequences.

107. It Happened One Night

In Frank Capra’s acclaimed romantic comedy, spoiled heiress Ellie Andrews (Claudette Colbert) impetuously marries the scheming King Westley, leading her tycoon father (Walter Connolly) to spirit her away on his yacht. After jumping ship, Ellie falls in with cynical newspaper reporter Peter Warne (Clark Gable), who offers to help her reunite with her new husband in exchange for an exclusive story. But during their travels, the reporter finds himself falling for the feisty young heiress.

108. 21 Jump Street

When cops Schmidt (Jonah Hill) and Jenko (Channing Tatum) join the secret Jump Street unit, they use their youthful appearances to go under cover as high-school students. They trade in their guns and badges for backpacks, and set out to shut down a dangerous drug ring. But, as time goes on, Schmidt and Jenko discover that high school is nothing like it was just a few years earlier — and, what’s more, they must again confront the teenage terror and anxiety they thought they had left behind.

109. Three Stooges

The Three Stooges were an American vaudeville and comedy act of the mid–20th century best known for their numerous Columbia short subject films, still syndicated to television. Their hallmark was physical farce and slapstick.

110. Laurel and Hardy

111. Arsenic and Old Lace

Writer and notorious marriage detractor Mortimer Brewster (Cary Grant) falls for girl-next-door Elaine Harper (Priscilla Lane), and they tie the knot on Halloween. When the newlyweds return to their respective family homes to deliver the news, Brewster finds a corpse hidden in a window seat. With his eccentric aunts (Josephine Hull, Jean Adair), disturbed uncle (John Alexander), and homicidal brother (Raymond Massey), he starts to realize that his family is even crazier than he thought.

112. Abbott and Costello’s ‘The Time of their Lives’

A psychiatrist (Bud Abbott) stays in a mansion haunted by prankish ghosts (Lou Costello, Marjorie Reynolds) from the Revolutionary War.

113. Arthur (the original)

Wealthy New York City playboy Arthur Bach (Dudley Moore) is perpetually drunk and completely rudderless. Dutifully supported by his sharp-tongued and quick-witted butler, Hobson (John Gielgud), Arthur reluctantly prepares to enter into an arranged marriage with heiress Susan Johnson (Jill Eikenberry). When he meets Linda Marolla (Liza Minnelli), a waitress from Queens, he falls head over heels in love, but if he backs out of his engagement with Susan, he may lose his fortune.

114. Gods Must Be Crazy I & II

The tribal people in a remote African desert live a happy life, but it is all torn to pieces when a Coca-Cola bottle falls from a plane. With the villagers fighting over the strange foreign object, tribal leader Xi (N!xau) decides to take the bottle back to the gods to restore peace. His journey to the “end of the world” eventually has him crossing paths with a bumbling scientist (Marius Weyers) and a band of guerrillas who take a schoolteacher (Sandra Prinsloo) and her class hostage.

115. Kingpin

Roy Munson (Woody Harrelson) is a young bowler with a promising career ahead of him until a disreputable colleague, Ernie McCracken (Bill Murray), tricks him into participating in a con game that ends with Roy’s bowling hand crippled for life. Years later, Roy ekes out a hardscrabble existence until he discovers Amish bowling phenom Ishmael (Randy Quaid). With the help of a gangser’s girlfriend (Vanessa Angel), he plots to take Ishmael to the top of the bowling world.

116. Meet The Spartans

When Xerxes (Ken Davitian), the evil god king of Persia, sends his massive army to Sparta, King Leonidas (Sean Maguire) and 13 strapping warriors rise up to defend their homeland. Leonidas, Captain (Kevin Sorbo) and the rest face down dancing Persians, bad punch-lines and celebrity look-alikes.

117. Hot Shots

A parody of Top Gun (1986) in which a talented but unstable fighter pilot must overcome the ghosts of his father and save a mission sabotaged by greedy weapons manufacturers.

118. Hot Shots Part Deux

“Rambo” parody in which Topper Harley leads a rescue team into Iraq to save Iraqi war prisoners and all of their previous rescue teams.

119. Police Academy 1-7

When the mayor of a crime-ridden city loosens the restrictions on entering the police academy in order to get more cops on the street, all manner of oddball characters enlist to join the force. Among the cadets are suave Carey Mahoney (Steve Guttenberg), hulking Moses Hightower (Bubba Smith), beautiful Karen Thompson (Kim Cattrall) and sound effects-generating Larvell Jones (Michael Winslow), who all have to show initiative and courage when they are faced with tough situations out on patrol.

120. His Girl Friday

When hard-charging New York newspaper editor Walter Burns (Cary Grant) discovers that his ex-wife, investigative reporter Hildy Johnson (Rosalind Russell), has gotten engaged to milquetoast insurance agent Bruce Baldwin (Ralph Bellamy), he unsuccessfully tries to lure her away from tame domestic life with a story about the impending execution of convicted murderer Earl Williams. But when Hildy discovers Williams may be innocent, her reporter instincts take over.

121. Duck Soup

When the tiny nation of Freedonia goes bankrupt, its wealthy benefactor, Mrs. Teasdale (Margaret Dumont), insists that the wacky Rufus T. Firefly (Groucho Marx) become the country’s president. Sensing a weakness in leadership, the bordering nation of Sylvania sends in the spies Pinky (Harpo Marx) and Chicolini (Chico Marx) to set the stage for a revolution. As Firefly clashes with the Sylvanian ambassador (Louis Calhern), plenty of mayhem ensues, and the countries verge on all-out war.

122. Philadelphia Story

This classic romantic comedy focuses on Tracy Lord (Katharine Hepburn), a Philadelphia socialite who has split from her husband, C.K. Dexter Haven (Cary Grant), due both to his drinking and to her overly demanding nature. As Tracy prepares to wed the wealthy George Kittredge (John Howard), she crosses paths with both Dexter and prying reporter Macaulay Connor (James Stewart). Unclear about her feelings for all three men, Tracy must decide whom she truly loves.

123. Breakfast Club

Five high school students from different walks of life endure a Saturday detention under a power-hungry principal (Paul Gleason). The disparate group includes rebel John (Judd Nelson), princess Claire (Molly Ringwald), outcast Allison (Ally Sheedy), brainy Brian (Anthony Michael Hall) and Andrew (Emilio Estevez), the jock. Each has a chance to tell his or her story, making the others see them a little differently — and when the day ends, they question whether school will ever be the same.

124. Ted

Life has changed drastically for thunder buddies John (Mark Wahlberg), now a bachelor, and best pal Ted (Seth MacFarlane), now married to the woman (Jessica Barth) of his dreams. Problems arise when the couple decide to adopt a child, but the law declares Ted to be property and not a person. Angry and dejected, the lovably foulmouthed teddy bear must now seek legal help from a young lawyer (Amanda Seyfried) and a legendary, civil-rights attorney (Morgan Freeman) to get the justice he deserves.

125. The Mummy Returns

Ten years after the events of the first film, Rick (Brendan Fraser) and Evelyn (Rachel Weisz) O’Connell are settled in 1935 London, where they are raising their son. When a chain of events finds the corpse of Imhotep (Arnold Vosloo) resurrected, the O’Connells go on a desperate race to save the world from unspeakable evil and to rescue their son before it is too late.

126. Without a Paddle

After their friend Billy (Anthony Starr) dies, Tom (Dax Shepard), Jerry (Matthew Lillard) and Dan (Seth Green) go on a camping trip to honor his memory. The campsite, however, has special significance. Billy believed famous airplane hijacker D.B. Cooper hid money in the area, and his friends aim to find it. Unfortunately, they are not prepared for the adventure. After falling over a waterfall, they are left to the mercy of wild animals and a harsh wilderness terrain.

127. Longest Yard

Disgraced pro football quarterback Paul Crewe (Adam Sandler) lands in jail, where manipulative Warden Hazen (James Cromwell) recruits him to advise the institution’s team. This turns into a lead role quarterbacking a crew of inmates in a game against a team of prison guards. Aided by incarcerated ex-NFL coach Nate Scarborough (Burt Reynolds), Crewe and his team must overcome not only the bloodthirstiness of the opposition, but also the corrupt officials trying to fix the game against them.

128. White Chicks

Two FBI agent brothers, Marcus (Marlon Wayans) and Kevin Copeland (Shawn Wayans), accidentally foil a drug bust. As punishment, they are forced to escort a pair of socialites (Maitland Ward, Anne Dudek) to the Hamptons, where they’re going to be used as bait for a kidnapper. But when the girls realize the FBI’s plan, they refuse to go. Left without options, Marcus and Kevin decide to pose as the sisters, transforming themselves from African-American men into a pair of blonde, white women.

129. The Animal

Marvin (Rob Schneider) is a man who doesn’t have what it takes to fulfill his lifelong dream to be a cop. But his luck changes when he’s critically injured in a car accident and a deranged scientist secretly uses animal organs to rebuild him. Energized by his new parts, Marvin leaves his weakness behind and achieves instant fame as a supercop. Now a hero, life is going great for Marvin until his animal instincts start taking over his body at all the wrong times.

130. Hot Chick 

Not only is Jessica Spencer (Rachel McAdams) the most popular girl in school — she is also the meanest. But things change for the attractive teen when a freak accident involving a cursed pair of earrings and a chance encounter at a gas station causes her to switch bodies with Clive (Rob Schneider), a sleazy crook. Jessica, in the form of the repulsive Clive, struggles to adjust to this radical alteration and sets out to get her own body back before the upcoming prom.

131. Little Nicky

In a perfect world, he’d be happy to head-bang in his room all day to heavy metal music. But no, his mom is an angel, his old man is the devil, and like all good fathers, he insists that Nicky get involved in the “family business.” Nicky could think of 666 things he’d rather be doing than corrupting souls or spewing evil, but when his father’s command over Hades is threatened by his bullying older brothers, it’s up to unbalanced Nicky to restore the balance between Good and Evil on earth.

132. The Little Rascals

Mischievous youngsters Spanky (Travis Tedford) and Buckwheat (Ross Elliot Bagley) lead an anti-girl organization, and they pick their buddy Alfalfa (Bug Hall) to represent them in an all-important soapbox car rally. When the boys then find their driver canoodling with schoolmate Darla (Brittany Ashton Holmes), they decide they must break up the couple. Unfortunately, while Spanky and his pals are busy meddling in Alfalfa’s affairs, their prized race car is nabbed by two young toughs.

133. What Happens in Vegas

During a wild vacation in Las Vegas, career woman Joy McNally (Cameron Diaz) and playboy Jack Fuller (Ashton Kutcher) come to the sober realization that they have married each other after a night of drunken abandon. Besides that, there is a huge jackpot at stake. An implacable judge freezes the prize money and refuses to grant an annulment, so Joy and Jack must try to make their impromptu marriage work.

134. Guess Who

Theresa (Zoe Saldana) is a young woman who is about to introduce her fiancé to her father, Percy Jones (Bernie Mac). Percy is eager to meet his African-American daughter’s businessman beau, but is shocked to learn that she is engaged to Simon Green (Ashton Kutcher), a white man. Staying with the Joneses to celebrate Percy and his wife’s 25th wedding anniversary, the accident-prone Simon makes a terrible first impression and faces an uphill battle to win over his future father-in-law.

135. Parent Trap

In this update of a 1961 film, twins Annie and Hallie (Lindsay Lohan) are strangers until happenstance unites them. The preteen girls’ divorced parents, Nick (Dennis Quaid) and Elizabeth (Natasha Richardson), are living on opposite sides of the Atlantic, each with one child. After meeting at camp, American Hallie and British-raised Annie engineer an identity swap, giving both the chance to spend time with the parent they’ve missed. If the scheme works, it might just make the family whole again.

136. Mean Girls 

Teenage Cady Heron (Lindsay Lohan) was educated in Africa by her scientist parents. When her family moves to the suburbs of Illinois, Cady finally gets to experience public school and gets a quick primer on the cruel, tacit laws of popularity that divide her fellow students into tightly knit cliques. She unwittingly finds herself in the good graces of an elite group of cool students dubbed “the Plastics,” but Cady soon realizes how her shallow group of new friends earned this nickname.

137. Cable Guy

Oddball cable installer Chip Douglas (Jim Carrey) attempts to strike up a friendship with customer Steven Kovacs (Matthew Broderick) by offering him premium channels at no cost. When Steven rebuffs Chip’s frequent need for companionship, Chip goes from a mildly eccentric acquaintance to a full-fledged psycho stalker. Though it’s increasingly apparent to Steven that the cable guy is dangerous, convincing his friends, family and the authorities of that is another matter entirely.

138. Bridesmaids

Annie (Kristen Wiig) is a single woman whose own life is a mess, but when she learns that her lifelong best friend, Lillian (Maya Rudolph), is engaged, she has no choice but to serve as the maid of honor. Though lovelorn and almost penniless, Annie, nevertheless, winds her way through the strange and expensive rituals associated with her job as the bride’s go-to gal. Determined to make things perfect, she gamely leads Lillian and the other bridesmaids down the wild road to the wedding.

139. Spy

Despite having solid field training, CIA analyst Susan Cooper (Melissa McCarthy) has spent her entire career as a desk jockey, working hand-in-hand with dashing agent Bradley Fine (Jude Law). Using high-tech equipment and a hidden earpiece, Susan is the guardian angel who helps Bradley avoid danger. However, when Bradley is assassinated by Bulgarian arms dealer Rayna Boyanov (Rose Byrne), Susan wrangles her way into her first undercover assignment to help capture Boyanov and avenge Bradley.

140. Magic Mike XXL

It’s been three years since Mike Lane’s (Channing Tatum) retirement from stripping, but the former dancer misses the excitement and feeling of being on stage. Most of all, though, he misses the best friends that he ever had, the crew known as the Kings of Tampa. Opportunity comes knocking when the guys look him up as they travel to Myrtle Beach, S.C., for a stripper convention. With the promise of outrageous fun, a reinvigorated Mike can’t resist the chance to join in and take it off again.

141. The Duff

Frumpy high-school senior Bianca (Mae Whitman) has a rude awakening when she learns that her classmates secretly know her as the DUFF — designated ugly fat friend — to her prettier and more popular pals. Desperate to reinvent herself, Bianca enlists the aid of Wesley (Robbie Amell), a charming jock. In order to save her senior year from becoming a complete disaster, Bianca must find the confidence to overthrow a judgmental student (Bella Thorne) and revolutionize the school’s social order.

142. Inside out

Riley (Kaitlyn Dias) is a happy, hockey-loving 11-year-old Midwestern girl, but her world turns upside-down when she and her parents move to San Francisco. Riley’s emotions — led by Joy (Amy Poehler) — try to guide her through this difficult, life-changing event. However, the stress of the move brings Sadness (Phyllis Smith) to the forefront. When Joy and Sadness are inadvertently swept into the far reaches of Riley’s mind, the only emotions left in Headquarters are Anger, Fear and Disgust.

143. Dope

High-school senior Malcolm (Shameik Moore) and his friends Jib (Tony Revolori) and Diggy (Kiersey Clemons) bond over ’90s hip-hop culture, their studies and playing music in their own punk band. A chance encounter with a drug dealer named Dom lands Malcolm and company at the dealer’s nightclub birthday party; when the scene turns violent, they flee — with the Ecstasy that Dom secretly hid in Malcolm’s backpack. A wild adventure ensues as the youths try to evade armed thugs who want the stash.

144. Trainwreck

Ever since her father drilled into her head that monogamy isn’t realistic, magazine writer Amy (Amy Schumer) has made promiscuity her credo. As much as she enjoys an uninhibited life free of commitment, Amy is really in a rut. While writing a profile about charming and successful sports doctor Aaron Conners (Bill Hader), she finds herself actually falling in love for the first time — and what’s more, Aaron seems to like her too. Amy starts to wonder if it’s time to clean up her act.

145. Pixels

When aliens intercept video feeds of classic arcade games and misinterpret them as a declaration of war, they attack Earth, using the games as models. Knowing that he must employ a similar strategy, President Will Cooper (Kevin James) recruits his childhood pal, former video-game champ and home-theater installer Sam Brenner (Adam Sandler), to lead a team of old-school arcade players (Peter Dinklage, Josh Gad) and a military specialist (Michelle Monaghan) to save the planet.

146. Mall Rats

T.S. (Jeremy London) and his best friend, Brodie (Jason Lee), take a trip to the mall after their girlfriends break up with them. T.S.’s girlfriend, Brandi (Claire Forlani), is participating in a dating game show at the mall, which was the initial cause of their breakup. Meanwhile, Brodie’s ex, Rene (Shannen Doherty), has begun dating sleazy store manager Shannon (Ben Affleck). T.S. and Brodie seek out ways to ruin the game show, hunted all the while by Brandi’s father, Jared (Michael Rooker).

147. Black Sheep

Sheep-fearing Henry (Nathan Meister) returns to his brother’s (Peter Feeney) New Zealand farm, hoping his sibling will buy out his share of the property. However, what he finds are genetically altered sheep that prey on humans and turn their victims into undead, woolly killers. Shear madness ensues as Henry, an animal-rights activist (Danielle Mason) and a farmhand (Tammy Davis) set out to stop the rampaging animals.

148. Zombieland

After a virus turns most people into zombies, the world’s surviving humans remain locked in an ongoing battle against the hungry undead. Four survivors — Tallahassee (Woody Harrelson) and his cohorts Columbus (Jesse Eisenberg), Wichita (Emma Stone) and Little Rock (Abigail Breslin) — abide by a list of survival rules and zombie-killing strategies as they make their way toward a rumored safe haven in Los Angeles.

149. The Ladies Man

The new owner of the Cleveland Indians, former showgirl Rachel Phelps (Margaret Whitton), has a sweetheart deal to move the team to Miami. But to break the lease with the city of Cleveland, ticket sales have to plummet. So Phelps hires the most incompetent players available, including near-blind pitcher Rick Vaughn (Charlie Sheen) and injury-prone catcher Jake Taylor (Tom Berenger). But her villainous tactics accidentally foster a can-do team spirit, turning the Indians into potential winners.

150. The Great Outdoors

It’s vacation time for outdoorsy Chicago man Chet Ripley (John Candy), along with his wife, Connie (Stephanie Faracy), and their two kids, Buck (Chris Young) and Ben (Ian Giatti). But a serene weekend of fishing at a Wisconsin lakeside cabin gets crashed by Connie’s obnoxious brother-in-law, Roman Craig (Dan Aykroyd), his wife, Kate (Annette Bening), and the couple’s two daughters. As the excursion wears on, the Ripleys find themselves at odds with the stuffy Craig family.

151. Uncle Buck

When Cindy (Elaine Bromka) and her husband, Bob (Garrett M. Brown), have to leave town for a family emergency, there is only one person available to babysit for their three kids: Bob’s lazy, carefree brother, Buck (John Candy). While he immediately gets along with the two younger children (Gaby Hoffman, Macaulay Culkin), Buck must change his bachelor lifestyle if he wants to be a responsible caregiver for the angst-filled teenager, Tia (Jean Louisa Kelly).

152. Armed and Dangerous

A police officer who has been wrongly dismissed from his job, Frank Dooley (John Candy) finds work as a security guard, along with Norman Kane (Eugene Levy), an inept lawyer. Unfortunately, the company that employs Frank and Norman is involved in some shady dealings, and it’s up to the bumbling guards to foil the plans of the corrupt leaders, most notably tough mobster Michael Carlino (Robert Loggia), who isn’t happy to have his profitable scheme threatened.

153. Summer Rental 

After air traffic controller Jack Chester loses a plane (it’s covered on his screen by a fly), he’s told to take a break. Jack books his family into a plush resort, but it turns out that their lodgings are in a hut by the beach, and that’s as good as the vacation gets.

154. Not Another Teen Movie

“Not Another Teen Movie” shows no mercy as it skewers the conventions and clichés of the genre you hate to love. Join Janey Briggs (Chyler Leigh), an aspiring artist who is outcast by her classmates for wearing glasses, a ponytail and paint-covered overalls; and Jake Wyler (Chris Evans), the all-American football star who makes a foolish bet to turn Janey into a prom queen, in a risqué romp with an assortment of twisted takes on classic teen characters and teen movies. A sendup of all the teen movies that have accumulated in the past two decades.

155. Pitch Perfect 2

After a humiliating command performance at Lincoln Center, the Barden Bellas enter an international competition that no American group has ever won in order to regain their status and right to perform.

156. Entourage

Movie star Vincent Chase, together with his boys Eric, Turtle, and Johnny, are back – and back in business with super agent-turned-studio head Ari Gold on a risky project that will serve as Vince’s directorial debut.

157. Get Hard

When millionaire James King is jailed for fraud and bound for San Quentin, he turns to Darnell Lewis to prep him to go behind bars.

158. Over the Hedge

A scheming raccoon fools a mismatched family of forest creatures into helping him repay a debt of food, by invading the new suburban sprawl that popped up while they were hibernating…and learns a lesson about family himself.

159. Bringing up Baby

Harried paleontologist David Huxley (Cary Grant) has to make a good impression on society matron Mrs. Random (May Robson), who is considering donating one million dollars to his museum. On the day before his wedding, Huxley meets Mrs. Random’s high-spirited young niece, Susan Vance (Katharine Hepburn), a madcap adventuress who immediately falls for the straitlaced scientist. The ever-growing chaos — including a missing dinosaur bone and a pet leopard — threatens to swallow him whole.

160. It’s a Mad, Mad, Mad World

The dying words of a thief spark a madcap cross-country rush to find some treasure.

161. OSCAR

Angelo “Snaps” Provolone made his dying father a promise on his deathbed: he would leave the world of crime and become an honest businessman. Despite having no experience in making money in a legal fashion, Snaps sets about to keep his promise. He is faced with numerous problems: henchmen who know nothing but crime, the police who are convinced he is hatching a master plan, and Oscar, who has just got his daughter pregnant.

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162. Kung Pow

Writer-director Steve Oedekerk acquired the little known 1976 Hong Kong karate flick “Savage Killers,” then seamlessly blended portions of the film with new material he has directed to create a wild, off-the-wall, comedy feature film. Oedekerk wrote, directed and stars in “Enter The Fist,” placing himself digitally into the old film, re-dubbing the characters, as well as shooting new scenes.

163. Used Cars

When the owner of a struggling used car lot is killed, it’s up to the lot’s hot-shot salesman to save the property from falling into the hands of the owner’s ruthless brother and used-car rival.

164. This is Spinal Tap

Spinal Tap, one of England’s loudest bands, is chronicled by film director Marty DeBergi on what proves to be a fateful tour.

165. Slap Shot

A failing ice hockey team finds success using constant fighting and violence during games.

166. Tootsie

An unemployed actor with a reputation for being difficult disguises himself as a woman to get a role in a soap opera.

167. Wet Hot American Summer

Set on the last day of camp, in the hot summer of 1981, a group of counselors try to complete their unfinished business before the day ends.

168. What About Bob

A successful psychotherapist loses his mind after one of his most dependent patients, a manipulative, obsessively compulsive narcissist, tracks him down during his family vacation.

169. Beverly Hills Ninja

An unlikely man raised by ninjas, goes against a counterfeiter with the help of the criminal’s girlfriend.

170. Shanghai Noon

A Chinese man who travels to the Wild West to rescue a kidnapped princess. After teaming up with a train robber, the unlikely duo takes on a Chinese traitor and his corrupt boss.

171. Top Secret

172. Horrible Bosses

Three friends conspire to murder their awful bosses when they realize they are standing in the way of their happiness.

173. Fletch / Fletch Lives

Fletch is a reporter for a Los Angeles newspaper, but he acts more like a detective. When an obscure relative leaves him a Louisiana mansion in his will, Fletch is naturally curious. Arriving in Louisiana, events occur that make him suspect that all is not well, and there is more to the property than he has been led to believe.

174. Raising Arizona

When a childless couple of an ex-con and an ex-cop decide to help themselves to one of another family’s quintupelets, their lives get more complicated than they anticipated.

175. See No Evil, Hear No Evil

Dave is deaf, and Wally is blind. They witness a murder, but it was Dave who was looking at her, and Wally who was listening.

176. Bad Grandpa

86-year-old Irving Zisman takes a trip from Nebraska to North Carolina to take his 8 year-old grandson, Billy, back to his real father.

177. My Cousin Vinny

Two New Yorkers are accused of murder in rural Alabama while on their way back to college, and one of their cousins–an inexperienced, loudmouth lawyer not accustomed to Southern rules and manners–comes in to defend them.

178. Mom’s Night Out

Hardworking mom Allyson has a crazy night out with her friends, while their husbands watch their children.

179. Chef

A chef who loses his restaurant job starts up a food truck in an effort to reclaim his creative promise, while piecing back together his estranged family.

180. The Jerk

An idiotic man struggles to make it through life on his own in St. Louis.

181. Superhero Movie

Orphaned high school student Rick Riker is bitten by a radioactive dragonfly, develops super powers (except for the ability to fly), and becomes a hero.

182. Ratatouille

A rat who can cook makes an unusual alliance with a young kitchen worker at a famous restaurant.

183. Night At The Museum

A night watchman (Ben Stiller) at a museum of natural history makes a startling discovery: Thanks to the unleashing of an ancient Egyptian curse, the museum’s animals, birds, bugs and other exhibits spring to life after the building closes, and former President Teddy Roosevelt (Robin Williams) is among those the hapless guard encounters.

184. Land Of The Lost

On his latest expedition, Dr. Rick Marshall is sucked into a space-time vortex alongside his research assistant and a redneck survivalist. In this alternate universe, the trio make friends with a primate named Chaka, their only ally in a world full of dinosaurs and other fantastic creatures.

185. Little Man

A wannabe dad mistakes a vertically challenged criminal on the lam as his newly adopted son.

186. Neighbors

After they are forced to live next to a fraternity house, a couple with a newborn baby do whatever they can to take them down.

187. Up in Smoke

Two stoners unknowingly smuggle a van – made entirely of marijuana – from Mexico to L.A., with incompetent Sgt. Stedenko on their trail.

188. Take the Money and Run

The life and times of Virgil Starkwell, inept bank robber.

189. Smokey and the Bandit

The Bandit is hired on to run a tractor trailer full of beer over county lines in hot pursuit by a pesky sheriff.

190. The Cannonball Run Series

A wide variety of eccentric competitors participate in a wild and illegal cross-country car race.

191. I Love you Phillip Morris

A cop turns con man once he comes out of the closet. Once imprisoned, he meets the second love of his life, whom he’ll stop at nothing to be with.

192. Weird Science

Two high school nerds attempt to create the perfect woman, but she turns out to be more than that.

193. Strange Brew

Canada’s most famous hosers, Bob and Doug McKenzie, get jobs at the Elsinore Brewery, only to learn that something is rotten with the state of it.

194. National Lampoon’s Vacation

The Griswold family’s cross-country drive to the Walley World theme park proves to be much more arduous than they ever anticipated.

195. The General

When Union spies steal an engineer’s beloved locomotive, he pursues it single-handedly and straight through enemy lines.

196. City Lights

With the aid of a wealthy erratic tippler, a dewy-eyed tramp who has fallen in love with a sightless flower girl accumulates money to be able to help her medically.

197. Some Like It Hot

When two musicians witness a mob hit, they flee the state in an all female band disguised as women, but further complications set in.

198. Punch-Drunk Love

A psychologically troubled novelty supplier is nudged towards a romance with an English woman, all the while being extorted by a phone-sex line run by a crooked mattress salesman, and purchasing stunning amounts of pudding.

199. Diary of a Wimpy Kid

The adventures of a teenager who is fresh out and in Middle School, where he has to learn the consequences and responsibility to survive the year.

200. Due Date

High-strung father-to-be Peter Highman is forced to hitch a ride with aspiring actor Ethan Tremblay on a road trip in order to make it to his child’s birth on time.

201. Trip To Italy

Two men, six meals in six different places on a road trip around Italy. Liguria, Tuscany, Rome, Amalfi and ending in Capri.

202. Date Night

In New York City, a case of mistaken identity turns a bored married couple’s attempt at a glamorous and romantic evening into something more thrilling and dangerous.

203. Anger Management

Dave Buznik is a businessman who is wrongly sentenced to an anger-management program, where he meets an aggressive instructor.

204. Bad Words

A spelling bee loser sets out to exact revenge by finding a loophole and attempting to win as an adult.

205. Sightseers

Chris wants to show girlfriend Tina his world, but events soon conspire against the couple and their dream caravan holiday takes a very wrong turn.

206. Instructions Not Included

A man who has made a new life for himself and the daughter left on his doorstep 6 years ago finds his family threatened when the birth mother resurfaces.

207. Don Jon

A New Jersey guy dedicated to his family, friends, and church, develops unrealistic expectations from watching porn and works to find happiness and intimacy with his potential true love.

208. I Now Pronounce You Chuck & Larry

Two straight, single Brooklyn firefighters pretend to be a gay couple in order to receive domestic partner benefits.

209. The Kids Are All right

Two children conceived by artificial insemination bring their father into their family life.

210. Grand Budapest Hotel

The adventures of Gustave H, a legendary concierge at a famous hotel from the fictional Republic of Zubrowka between the first and second World Wars, and Zero Moustafa, the lobby boy who becomes his most trusted friend.

211. Seven Psychopaths

A struggling screenwriter inadvertently becomes entangled in the Los Angeles criminal underworld after his oddball friends kidnap a gangster’s beloved Shih Tzu.

212. Safety Not Guaranteed

Three magazine employees head out on an assignment to interview a guy who placed a classified ad seeking a companion for time travel.

213. John dies at the End

A new street drug that sends its users across time and dimensions has one drawback: some people return as no longer human. Can two college dropouts save humankind from this silent, otherworldly invasion?

214. The Way Way Back

Shy 14-year-old Duncan goes on summer vacation with his mother, her overbearing boyfriend, and her boyfriend’s daughter. Having a rough time fitting in, Duncan finds an unexpected friend in Owen, manager of the Water Wizz water park.

215. Rapids

Tim Lippe has no idea what he’s in for when he’s sent to Cedar Rapids, Iowa to represent his company at an annual insurance convention, where he soon finds himself under the “guidance” of three convention veterans.

216. Here Comes the Boom

A high school biology teacher looks to become a successful mixed-martial arts fighter in an effort to raise money to prevent extra-curricular activities from being axed at his cash-strapped school.

217. Ride Along

Security guard Ben must prove himself to his girlfriend’s brother, top cop James. He rides along James on a 24-hour patrol of Atlanta.

218. Four Lions

Four incompetent British jihadists set out to train for and commit an act of terror.

219. This Is The End

While attending a party at James Franco’s house, Seth Rogen, Jay Baruchel and many other celebrities are faced with the apocalypse.

220. City Island

The Rizzos, a family who doesn’t share their habits, aspirations, and careers with one another, find their delicate web of lies disturbed by the arrival of a young ex-con (Strait) brought home by Vince (Garcia), the patriarch of the family, who is a corrections officer in real life, and a hopeful actor in private.

221. Pirate Radio

A period comedy about an illegal radio station in the North Sea in the 1960s. “The Boat That Rocked” is an ensemble comedy in which the romance takes place between the young people of the ’60s and pop music. It’s about a band of rogue DJs that captivated Britain, playing the music that defined a generation and standing up to a government that wanted classical music, and nothing else, on the airwaves.

222. Paul

When seasoned comedian George Simmons learns of his terminal, inoperable health condition, his desire to form a genuine friendship cause him to take a relatively green performer under his wing as his opening act.

223. Meet The Fockers

All hell breaks loose when the Byrnes family meets the Focker family for the first time.

224. Little Fockers

Family-patriarch Jack Byrnes wants to appoint a successor. Does his son-in-law, the male nurse Greg Focker have what it takes?

225. The 100-Year-Old Man Who Climbed Out the Window and Disappeared

After living a long and colorful life, Allan Karlsson finds himself stuck in a nursing home. On his 100th birthday, he leaps out a window and begins an unexpected journey.

226. Hitch

While helping his latest client woo the fine lady of his dreams, a professional “date doctor” finds that his game doesn’t quite work on the gossip columnist with whom he’s smitten.

227. Most ‘Jack Black’ Movies

The role of Barry in High Fidelity, which is considered one of Jack Black’s breakout roles, was written specifically for the Tenacious D musician as John Cusack and his fellow screenwriters were a fan of Black’s music and humor. Jack Black’s highest grossing movies have received a lot of accolades over the years, earning millions upon millions around the world. Watch his movies like Shallow Hal, School Of Rock, Nacho Libre, Tenacious D in the Pick of Destiny, Be Kind rewind, etc.

228. Paul Blart: Mall Cop Series

When a shopping mall is taken over by a gang of organized crooks, it’s up to a mild-mannered security guard to save the day.

229. Year One

After being banished from their tribe, two hunter-gatherers encounter Biblical characters and eventually wind up in the city of Sodom.

230. All the movies with ‘Minions’

Watch all the Minion movies like ‘The Minions’, ‘Minions’ and ‘Despicable Me’. They are the squishy, yellow, gibberish-speaking animated characters. The lovable weirdos’ unique chatter has always been part of their appeal which makes all their movies a fun watch. Minions “speak” in cute, high-pitched (possibly artificially), and emotive tones and they are so so adorable you want to own one or all of them.

231. Weekend At Bernie’s

A pair of losers try to pretend that their murdered employer is really alive, but the murderer is out to “finish him off”.

232. Biodome

Moronic best friends get themselves locked inside the Bio-Dome, a science experiment, along with a group of environmental scientists for one year.

233. She’s The Man

When her brother decides to ditch for a couple weeks in London, Viola heads over to his elite boarding school, disguises herself as him, and proceeds to fall for one of her soccer teammates. Little does she realize she’s not the only one with romantic troubles, as she, as he, gets in the middle of a series of intermingled love affairs.

So here we are to the end of the list! Hope you enjoyed it and if you chuckled while reading this blog post, I’m sure you’ll love those movies too!

Don’t forget to subscribe to my blog for more of such interesting stuff. Any suggestions or additions? Let me know via comments and I will add the movie name with credits given to you for the recommendation.

Till then, wish you an enjoyable week ahead! 😀